FORMATION OF THE WATER REGIME ON THE SANDS OF THE ARCHEDINSKO-DON MASSIF DEPENDING ON THE PLANT COMMUNITIES DISTRIBUTION
Kulik A.K., Kulik K.N., Vlasenko M.V., Sukhorukikh Yu.I., Biganova S.G. FORMATION OF THE WATER REGIME ON THE SANDS OF THE ARCHEDINSKO-DON MASSIF DEPENDING ON THE PLANT COMMUNITIES DISTRIBUTION // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 4 (88). P. 50-58. | PDF
The remote monitoring of the territory and the Archeda-Don interfluve sand massif landscape-ecological instrumental profiling made it possible to determine the soil and vegetation cover state, the level and slopes of groundwater. The soils salinization degree on various sands types was revealed. The water-soluble salts amount is 0.001% on open sands in the blowing hollows, and 0.03-0.05% on chernozem-like soils. Massifs where plant litter is accumulated have a salinity of 0.05-0.07%. Natural forest stands consist of the following species: birch (Bétula), alder (Alnus), oak (Quércus), aspen (Pópulus trémula) and willow (Sálix). In the XIX century, the common pine (Pínus sylvéstris) was introduced into the culture. A large number of forest sites and their koloks-like placement caused by the close occurrence of groundwater. Maximum productivity is achieved by alders (Alnus) with a wood reserve of 500 m3/ha. Their height in areas with stagnant ground water reaches 12-15 m. The birch trees (Bétula) koloks are located on depressions. On clay areas there are rare stands of petiolate oak (Quércus róbur) with a height of 8-12 m. The pine (Pínus sylvéstris) growth on chernozem-like multiphase sandy loam soils and on single-phase overgrown sands with thick turf-steppe soils is shown. There were identified 5 dominant sand types, where the area of forage lands is 171536 ha and forest sites – 50584 ha. All sand types have forest sites in the form of koloks and pine crops. Overgrown tuberous-ridge (seropeski) sands are in dominant. The total grass productivity according the sand types on 170625 hectares of pasture land of the massif is 370.7 thousand hectares. The most productive are overgrown closed depressions and ancient watercourses (3.0 t/ha). The received research results are relevant for a conceptual model of sandy lands optimal use development.
Keywords: sandy soils; salinity; soil moisture; vegetation; forest massifs; forest cover; forage lands.
Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of research of the Federal Scientific Center for Agroecology, Integrated Land Reclamation and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences No. AAAA19-119042290014-5 «Theoretical foundations of water resources management in the forest-agrarian development of arid territories of the Russian Federation on the basis of a dynamic model of the water balance of the region, mathematical modeling of the processes of formation and dynamics of groundwater and surface waters, assessment of the impact of climate change and anthropogenic loads on the agro-resource potential and forest conditions».