METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF ECOLOGICAL BALANCE IN THE AGROLANDSCAPES OF THE DRY-STEPPE ZONE OF CHESTNUT SOILS OF THE VOLGOGRAD REGION
UDC 631.95: 631.6.02
Belyakov A.M., Koshelev A.V., Nazarova M.V. METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF ECOLOGICAL BALANCE IN THE AGROLANDSCAPES OF THE DRY-STEPPE ZONE OF CHESTNUT SOILS OF THE VOLGOGRAD REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 1 (90). P. 124-130. | PDF
The agrolandscapes of the dry-steppe zone of chestnut soils in the middle reaches of the Don River and the lower reaches of the Volga River function in harsh soil and climatic conditions with a moisture deficit of 30-40% and are currently undergoing intensive anthropogenic use, which, according to many researchers, is the reason for their imbalance and varying degrees of degradation. In this regard, the procedure for agroecological monitoring and the system for assessing the ecological balance of agrolandscapes, including the method for its implementation, acquire special scientific and practical importance in the formation of rational land use in areas of insufficient moisture. As a result of the research, new knowledge has been obtained about the processes occurring in the agrolandscapes of the dry-steppe zone of chestnut soils under the influence of cultivation techniques, agricultural technologies and methods of using land resources. A significant influence of agrotechnological factors on the ecological balance of agrolandscapes are identified, such as the structure of sowing, crop rotation, methods of basic tillage, the level of alienation of nutrients, the rates of fertilization, a protective complex of agrophytocenoses, the method of arrangement and forest cover of land use, systemic measures of anti-erosion protection of the territory and which can lead to the object of research to a high degree of ecological balance or, conversely, to its degradation. A method for assessing the ecological balance of agrolandscapes in the dry-steppe zone of chestnut soils has been developed and proposed for practical use by a point system based on ten indicators. On the basis of the presented method, the agrolandscape is assessed in points on a balance scale: 5 points (absolutely balanced), 4 points (balanced), 3 points (medium balanced), 2 points (poorly balanced), 1 point or less (not balanced). The developed system of criteria and method for ecological assessment allows a high degree of objective assessment of the ecological balance of the agrolandscape of the dry-steppe zone of chestnut soils, which can be used as the basis for making organizational and technological decisions and measures to restore of the ecological balance of the territories of the southern provinces of the Russian Federation and the regulation of anthropogenic load on agrosphere in the conditions of insufficient moisture.
Keywords: agrolandscapes, factors of influence, agricultural technologies, ecological balance, system of assessment indicators, assessment method.
Financing. The work was carried out within the state assignment No. 0713-2019-0007 of the Federal Research Center for Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences “To develop conceptual, methodological and information technology bases for the formation of ecologically balanced agroforestry landscapes and adaptive farming systems using new generation chemicals for precision production of crop products while preserving and reproducing soil fertility and efficient use of natural resource potential”.