WATER REGIME TYPES OF THE SAND MASSIFS OF THE DON RIVER
Kulik A.K., Balkushkin R.N. WATER REGIME TYPES OF THE SAND MASSIFS OF THE DON RIVER // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 37-45. | PDF
Issues related to the study of soil-hydrological features of sandy massifs become relevant in conditions of arid climate and insufficient moisture for plants. The purpose of the research is to study the types of the Don River sandy massifs water regime. In the period from 2003 to 2021, route and stationary (laying of water-regime sites) studies were carried out on the territory of the sandy massifs of the Don River and its tributaries. Laboratory work was carried out at the hydrological complex of the FSC of Agroecology RAS, which includes 8 large-sized lysimeters and 18 vegetation sites. During the year, infiltration on open sands averages 70% of the total amount of precipitation. The greatest runoff to groundwater is observed on the Upper Don sandy massifs. According to lysimetric studies, the average annual intensity of intra-soil runoff, under conditions of fallow, is maximum on sandy soils and averages 0.73 mm/day, on sandy loam – 0.65 mm/day, on light loam — 0.37 mm/day. At the same time, in the second half of the year sandy loam soils are able to discharge more water into the groundwater than sandy and loamy soils. In most cases, the non-washing type of water regime is observed on the third terrace of sandy massifs with deep groundwater (>8 m) and on heavier soils in granulometric composition. In areas with ground water that is accessible to the stand roots, there is a daily pulsation with a general decrease in the level, since the night water intake does not compensate for the transpiration flow. Seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level on the Don sands average 40-60 cm, but can reach 90 cm.
Keywords: sand massifs, water regime, soil-hydrological constants, intra-soil runoff, lysimeters.
Funding.The work was carried out within the framework of the state task FNFE-2022-0011 «Development of a new methodology for optimal management of biological resources in agricultural landscapes of the arid zone of the Russian Federation using system-dynamic modeling of soil-hydrological processes, a comprehensive assessment of the impact of climate change and anthropogenic loads on agrobiological potential and forest conditions».