Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 4-12

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UDC 551.5


© 2022.   Z. Jamali, Z. Heidarizadi

GorganUniversity of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of GorganUniversity Iran, 4913815739, Gorgan, Shahid Beheshti St. Central Organization of the Universit. E-mail: Zahra_jamali1386@yahoo.com

Received January 12, 2022. Revised June 30, 2022. Accepted July 01, 2022.

Climate indices are important tools to better understand the effects of climate change in future time periods. We collected the daily mean temperature and precipitation for the years 1961-1990 from Gorgan meteorological stations. Then, climate change scenarios were simulated for three future time intervals (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) under RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85 emission scenarios using CANESM2 model. The De Martonne Aridity Index and Emberger Index change were calculated for the future time periods. Our analysis showed that based on the monthly De Martonne Aridity Index value range, April to October are arid months while the remaining months are semi-arid for RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85 emission scenarios of CANESM2. This may be partly due to a decrease of precipitation with increasing temperature in April to October. Therefore, agricultural areas require irrigation during these times. During summer, humidity will decrease in all the three future time periods for RCP 26 and RCP 45 scenarios. The same is also true for RCP 85 scenario except June of 2020s during which humidity is expected to be constant. Overall, humidity is projected to increase in most of the months in the three future time periods for RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85 emission scenarios. The projected Aridity index of Emberger values shows a trend similar to the De Martonne Aridity Index. The R2 indicate a high correlation between De Martonne and Emberger indices proving similar trend of the two indices for changes in all the three future time periods.

Keywords: Aridity indices, greenhouse gases, IPCC AR5.




Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 13-21

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UDC 551.583:632.125

Regional Climate Changes in Dry Steppes and their Connection to Droughts

© 2022.   A.M. Pugacheva, A.I. Belyaev, K.Yu. Trubakova, O.D. Romadina

Federal Scientific Centre of Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the RussianAcademy of Sciences 97, Universitetskiyprosp., Volgograd, 400062, Russian Federation. E-mail: pugachevaa@vfanc.ru, nir-1@mail.ru

Received January 27, 2022. Revised June 30, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The authors carried out an analysis of the regional climate for separate administrative districts of the Volgograd region for the first time. Differences were revealed based on temperature data and incoming precipitation. The study of the Volgograd region in the context of natural and climatic zones and subzones is of particular interest. This makes it possible to analyze multidirectional trends of climate change in a limited area. The open data of the climatic archive (VNIIGMI-MCD) on 5 reference weather stations of the region located in the dry steppes of chestnut soils were used in the work. The droughts were calculated on the basis of temperature and precipitation anomalies using Pedj Drought Index. Regional changes in the climate were identified in terms of the flow of precipitation during the seasons of active vegetation (spring, summer) according to long-term time series of data from registered meteorological stations. Regression analysis showed an increase in their reception in the spring and a decrease in the summer. Also, an increase in the number of droughts in the summer period was revealed with a decrease in aridity. This effect increases the intensity using Pedj Drought Index, the value of which reaches 3 units. A slight inverse correlation was found between the amount of incoming precipitation and the number of droughts in the summer in Volgograd, Surovikinsky, Ilovlinsky and Kamyshinsky districts and dry phenomena in the Surovikinsky district, as well as a direct moderate dependence on droughts in the Kamyshinsky district in summer. Areas with the maximum number of drought events have been identified, therefore, having the maximum risks of agricultural production. In Kamyshinsky district there were 21 drought events in spring, 115 in summer and in Surovikinsky district there were 4 drought events in spring, 70 in summer. In accordance with the results obtained, especially in the regions most susceptible to the influence of droughts, it is necessary to adjust the existing crop rotation schemes, the range of cultivated crops and a shift in emphasis towards conducting reclamation agriculture in these territories in order to eliminate the risks of agricultural production with the effective use of land resources. Regional climate studies are necessary for conducting effective agricultural activities. This makes it possible to objectively assess the situation with climate change at the level of administrative districts. The information obtained is necessary for the purpose of making managerial, risk-free decisions for agricultural production for agricultural regions.

Keywords: climate change, seasons of active vegetation, moisture availability during the seasons of active vegetation, droughts, aridity, dry steppe, chestnut soils.

Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to the research engineer of the Laboratory of Geoinformation Modeling and Mapping of Agroforestry Landscapes of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Vasilchenko for the cartographic material prepared for the article.

Funding.The work was carried out within the framework of the State Task of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Theoretical foundations of the functioning and natural-anthropogenic transformation of agroforestry complexes in transitional natural-geographical zones, patterns and forecast of their degradation and desertification based on geoinformation technologies, aerospace methods and mathematical cartographic modeling in modern conditions».:




Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 22-36

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UDC 631.671

Impact of River Flow Regulation, Climatic and Hydrological Changes on the State of Floodplain and Delta Ecosystems of the Lower Don

© 2022.   Zh.V. Kuzmina*, S.S. Shinkarenko**, D.A. Solodovnikov***, ****, M.L. Markov*****

*Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 3, Gubkina Str., Moscow, 119333, Russia. E-mail: jannaKV@yandex.ru

**Russian Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 84/32, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russia. E-mail: shinkarenkos@vfanc.ru

***Federal Scientific Center for Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences 97, Universitetskiy Avenue, Volgograd, 400062, Russia

****Volgograd State University 100, Universitetskiy Avenue, Volgograd, 400062, Russia. E-mail: solodovnikov@volsu.ru

*****State Hydrological Institute 23, 2nd Lane V.O., Saint-Petersburg, 199004, Russia. E-mail: m.markov@hydrology.ru

Received March 8, 2022. Revised May 12, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The terrestrial floodplain ecosystems of the Lower Don remain poorly explored even today, despite the fact that almost all of its lower reaches are regulated by water reservoirs and low-pressure hydroelectric facilities, which significantly change ecosystems and landscapes. Our studies were carried out according to our own methodology. The field part was carried out on 5 model ecological profiles, including a detailed study of vegetation and the location of surface groundwater at the model sites. The laboratory studies included the analysis of statistical hydrological materials and Landsat 2, 3, 5 and Sentinel-2 satellite images, as well as the identification of the ecosystems and landscapes state with the help of a two-stage method for assessing disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes under the watering regime change. We determined that the main factor that influences the change in the biotic components of the Lower Don ecosystems is the reduction in the fluctuations amplitude of water discharge (and levels) during the annual cycle due to the runoff regulation and climate change. The flooding frequency in the floodplain and delta territories decreased 4 times, along with a 3.5-fold decrease in spring flood discharges, and a 2.2-2.3-fold increase in low-water flows (during winter and summer-autumn periods). It caused a water level rise in the Don channel by 2.5 m and more, as well as a rise and stabilization of the groundwater level in the floodplain and delta of the Lower Don, which replaced the upper and middle floodplains communities with atypical invasive species. The natural forests of oak and elm on the upper floodplain have been replaced by green ash (Ffaxinus pennsylvanica) and ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) almost entirely. The willow forests (Salix alba), common for the middle floodplain, were replaced by the shrubs of desert false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) in the near-river floodplain, and with silver berry forests (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the central parts of the floodplain. The forb meadows of the middle floodplain were replaced by almost monodominant bushgrass (Calamagrostis epigeios) communities with thorny weeds, such as thistle (Cirsium) and cocklebur (Xanthium). The newly formed atypical floodplain communities have better chances to withstand a year-round high level of groundwater. When we evaluated the disturbance of ecosystems and landscapes water level on a 5-point scale from our own methodology, it showed that the least disturbed (2 out of 5) were the territories in the modern and old delta of the Don river, remote from any hydraulic structures. The remaining profiles (3-5) in the zone affected by the hydraulic structures, have an average disturbance level (3 out of 5), which does not yet require a change in the hydrological regime of the river, but suggests for the local hydro- and forest engineering measures to drain the land.

Keywords: Lower Don, change in water discharge, low water, high water, flooding, floodplain, groundwater level, floodplain ecosystems and landscapes, assessment of ecosystem disturbance.

Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank V.Yu. Georgievsky for his help with obtaining the hydrological data.

Funding. The development and analysis of hypsometric profiles, flooding levels and water surface mapping were funded by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 21-77-00018, “Patterns of the Dynamics of River Floodplains Landscapes in the Area of Insufficient Humidity under the Hydrological and Climatic Changes”; analysis of hydrological changes and the floodplain landscapes state are part of the theme No. FMWZ-2022-0002 of the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Research of Geoecological Processes in the Hydrological Land Systems, Formation of the Quality of Surface and Underground Waters, Problems of Water Resource Management and Water Use under the Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts”. The field studies are part of the theme No. FNFE-2022-003 of the Federal Scientific Center for Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Theoretical Basis of Functioning and Natural-anthropogenic Transformation of Agroforestry Landscape Complexes of the Transitional Natural-geographical Zones, Patterns and Forecasting of Their Degradation and Desertification According to the Geoinformation Technologies, Aerospace Methods and Mathematical-cartographic Modeling in Modern Conditions”. The hydrological data were provided as part of the civil law contract on 19/12/2018, No. 78/1-NIR/FCP-2018 for researches aimed to implement the federal special-purpose program  “Development of the Water Management Complex of the Russian Federation in 2012-2020”, theme “Scientific Generalization of Hydrological Monitoring Data for a Scientific Reference Book of the Main Hydrological Characteristics of Water Bodies in the Don River Basin”.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-22-36



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 37-45

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UDC 631.432


© 2022.   A.K. Kulik, R.N. Balkushkin

Federal Scientific Centre of Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences 97,Universitetskiyprosp., Volgograd, 400062, Russia. E-mail: kulika@vfanc.ru, balkuskin_r@vfanc.ru

Received April 1, 2022. RevisedJune30, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

Issues related to the study of soil-hydrological features of sandy massifs become relevant in conditions of arid climate and insufficient moisture for plants. The purpose of the research is to study the types of the Don River sandy massifs water regime. In the period from 2003 to 2021, route and stationary (laying of water-regime sites) studies were carried out on the territory of the sandy massifs of the Don River and its tributaries. Laboratory work was carried out at the hydrological complex of the FSC of Agroecology RAS, which includes 8 large-sized lysimeters and 18 vegetation sites. During the year, infiltration on open sands averages 70% of the total amount of precipitation. The greatest runoff to groundwater is observed on the Upper Don sandy massifs. According to lysimetric studies, the average annual intensity of intra-soil runoff, under conditions of fallow, is maximum on sandy soils and averages 0.73 mm/day, on sandy loam – 0.65 mm/day, on light loam — 0.37 mm/day. At the same time, in the second half of the year sandy loam soils are able to discharge more water into the groundwater than sandy and loamy soils. In most cases, the non-washing type of water regime is observed on the third terrace of sandy massifs with deep groundwater (>8 m) and on heavier soils in granulometric composition. In areas with ground water that is accessible to the stand roots, there is a daily pulsation with a general decrease in the level, since the night water intake does not compensate for the transpiration flow. Seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level on the Don sands average 40-60 cm, but can reach 90 cm.

Keywords: sand massifs, water regime, soil-hydrological constants, intra-soil runoff, lysimeters.

Funding.The work was carried out within the framework of the state task FNFE-2022-0011 «Development of a new methodology for optimal management of biological resources in agricultural landscapes of the arid zone of the Russian Federation using system-dynamic modeling of soil-hydrological processes, a comprehensive assessment of the impact of climate change and anthropogenic loads on agrobiological potential and forest conditions».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-37-45



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 46-54

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UDC 631.48; 581.54


© 2022. M.M. Alichaev*, M.G. Sultanova*, P.D. Musalaeva**

*Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of the Republic of Dagestan Akushinsky Ave., Scientific village, Makhachkala, 367014,Russia. E-mail:mezluma2017@mail.ru

**Institute of Geology of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences 75, M.Yaragskogo str., Makhachkala, 367000, Russia. E-mail: murzaeva.1983@mail.ru

Received January 14, 2021. Revised September 20, 2021. Accepted February 24, 2022.

The modern processes of manifestation of the stages of desertification and arid degradation and the dynamics of their development depending on soil fertility in arid conditions are considered on the example of the regions of the Western Caspian – the Tersko-Kuma lowland and the Terek Delta. The development of degradation processes proceeds in two stages, fundamentally different in content and scale of territorial distribution.

The first stage – natural degradation — originates from the time of the development of soil formation processes in the Holocene as one of the indispensable elements of the functioning of living organisms on the Earth’s surface. The natural dynamics of degradation processes proceeds with the formation of an equilibrium state of soil formation with the formation of certain types of soils of a full-profile structure. Depending on the conditions of soil formation characteristic of the degradation direction, such as salinization, pollution, salinity of soils at different stages of their development, salt marshes, salt flats, sandy and clay deserts are formed. The development of these soil properties in natural conditions continues at the present time, their evolution proceeds, starting in the Holocene epoch (Akaev, 1996).

On the second stage the dynamics of arid degradation and desertification is caused by anthropogenic impact, radically different from the indicators of natural degradation. As a result of the increased anthropogenic impact, the natural state of the soil cover is replaced by an unstable secondary one in artificial conditions. The measures contributing to the formation of new directions of soil formation include: the expansion of irrigated land areas in the Terek Delta, the Tersko-Kuma lowland and in other regions, the vulnerability of developed soils to natural salinization phenomena, wind erosion and degradation.

Keywords: stages of soil origination, Holocene differentiation, anthropogenic differentiation, fertility, halophytes, arid degradation, geological time periods, historical time periods.




Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 55-60

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UDC 631.4


© 2022.   M.E. Kotenko*, D.B.Asgerova**, U.M. Galimova***

*DagestanStateTechnicalUniversity 70, I.Shamilprospekt, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367026, Russia. E-mail: kukonya21@mail.ru

**Caspian Institute of Biological Resources of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences 45, M. Gadzhiyevstr., Republic of Dagestan, 367032, Russia. E-mail: asdi7408@mail.ru

***Dagestan State University 12, Dzherzhinsky str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367000, Russia. E-mail: uma-71@mail.ru

ReceivedApril 29, 2022. RevisedJuly1, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The Podgorny-Primorye plains are widespread in arid regions of the world. They are forming in the coastal strip, where the mountains come close to the seashore. Unlike other plains, they consist of three specific elements of the foothill plain: piedmont plain, coastal plain, or coast, and the continental part of the region. In these landscape components, soils and vegetation cover differ significantly, changing the structure of the soil cover.

Keywords: seashore, arid soils, piedmont plain, desertification, salt migration, soil salinization, indicator.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-55-60



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 61-74

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UDC 631.4


© 2022.   K.O. Prokopyeva *,**

*M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University 1, stroenie. 12, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia. E-mail: christina.prokopyeva@gmail.com

**V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute 7, build. 2, Pyzhevskypereulok, Moscow, 119017, Russia. E-mail: christina.prokopyeva@gmail.com

Received May 17, 2022. RevisedJune30, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

Remote assessment of soil salinity of natural solonetzic complexes, which are characterized by subsurface soil salinity, is a challenging task. Nevertheless, research in this area is promising, as salinity is a striking limiting factor affecting vegetation growth, and thus manifests itself on the spectral characteristics of the land surface. In this paper, an analysis of multi-temporal high-resolution satellite images compared with detailed ground data on soil salinity was carried out using the principal component method and multiple linear regression. Images from QuickBird (2007) and SuperView-1 (2021) satellites were used as remote sensing data with a spatial resolution of 2 m. Salinity was estimated by specific electrical conductivity (EC) in a water suspension of 1:5. Ground surveys were carried out in 2011 and 2021. It was found out that there were no significant changes in soil salinity in the key area during the 10-year period, but there were changes in vegetation conditions, which are reflected in the NDVI vegetation index maps. The principal components were calculated from multi-temporal high-resolution satellite images and it was concluded that the first three components explain almost 97% of the total image variability. Models based on multiple linear regression analysis describe well the soil salinity (R2 of the model is 0.68, 0.77, 0.83 for layers 0-30, 0-50, 0-100 cm, respectively). The constructed models based on remote sensing data have shown good agreement when tested with the control sample (R2 between predicted and measured EC values is 0.70, 0.87, 0.83 for layers 0-30, 0-50, 0-100 cm, respectively). The proposed models will be useful for estimation of salinity of soils of solonetzic complex of dry steppe from high resolution satellite images.

Keywords: QuickBird, SuperView-1, assessment of soil salinity, solonetzic complexes, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), NDVI, Caspian Lowland.

Acknowledgement. The author expresses gratitude for the help in the work of M.V. Konyushkova, I.P. Minkeev, A.F. Novikova, M.B. Shadrina, S.S. Ulanova, I.N. Semenkov, A.A. Kontoboitseva, Isinufen, N.M. Tserenov, U.Y. Ulumdjiev.




Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 75-82

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UDC 581.93:574.4


© 2022.   G.N. Ogureeva, M.V. Bocharnikov

Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University 1, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia

Received May 10, 2022. Revised June 10, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

Based on the biome concept of ecosystem diversity and the ecological-geographical approach to the analysis of biodiversity, a regional assessment of the unique South-East Altai-Tuva orobiome for Russia is given. Orobiome is considered as a strong unit for inventory and analysis of ecosystem and biotic diversity of mountain territories. The characteristic of bioclimatic indicators characterizing the originality of the desert-steppe orobiome of the Subarid class of belt types and its high-altitude belts is given. The altitudinal-belt structure of the vegetation cover is revealed, according to which the spatial differentiation of flora, plant communities, and ecosystems are formed. A quantitative assessment of the floristic (about 1400 species of vascular plants) and phytocenotic diversity by belts (nival, wasteland-tundra, forest-steppe, steppebelts) is iven. The features of the spatial structure of the diversity of communities in the conditions of the mountainous territory are revealed.

Keywords: biodiversity, mountain biome, ecosystem, biota, altitude-belt spectrum

Funding. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task on the topic «Spatio-temporal organization of ecosystems in the conditions of environmental changes» of Moscow State University and on the basis of the MWG Herbarium (created with the support of the Moscow University Development Program).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-75-82



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 83-90

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UDC 581.5.526.523


© 2022.   I.A. Goryaev, I.N. Safronova

W.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science 2, Prof. Popov str., Sankt-Petersburg, 197376, Russia. E-mail: goriaev.arslan@yandex.ru, irasafronova@yandex.ru

Received April 28, 2022. Revised May 28, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

Halocnemeta strobilacei is represented by 4 classes of associations and 14 associations on the Caspian lowland within European Russia.Сommunities of Halocnemeta strobilacei are common in desert and steppe zones, in which they differ in species composition and occupied area.

The most common are the cenoses of Halocnemeta strobilacei pura association class. Communities of two classes of associations are characteristic: Halocnemeta strobilacei halosuffruticulosa and Halocnemeta strobilacei annuae. It is rare to find communities of another class of associations Halocnemetum strobilacei graminosa. Monodominant communities of Halocnemeta strobilacei are confined to soils with a high content of chlorine ions (Cl). In soils under bidominant cenoses, in addition to chlorine ions (Cl), natrium ions (Na+) and sulfate ions (SO42-) have a high content.

Keywords: communities, Halocnemeta strobilacei, dwarf semishrubs, annuals, classification scheme, Caspian lowland.

Funding.The work was carried out on the planned topic of the Laboratory of General Geobotany of the BIN RAS «Vegetation of European Russia and Northern Asia: diversity, dynamics, principles of organization» No. 121032500047-1 and under the research agreement No. 1/71 dated 30.04.2021 of the BIN RAS with the World Wildlife Fund «Assessment of saiga habitats of the Northwestern Caspian Sea».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-83-90



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 91-103

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UDC 582.572.226(575.2) (04)


© 2022.   A.Zh. Kendirbaeva*, K.T. Shalpykov**, N.A. Rogova**, A.K. Dolotbakov**, U.-U. Chyngyz**

*Kyrgyz National University named after J. Balasagyn 547 bld., Frunze str., Bishkek, 720033, Kyrgyzstan. E-mail: kendirbaeva63@gmail.com

**Institute of Chemistry and Phytotechnology of the National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic 267, Kyrgyzstan, ave. Chui, , Bishkek, 720071. E-mail: alhor6464@mail.ru

Received June 13, 2021. Revised July 1, 2021. Accepted July 1, 2021.

Kyrgyzstan is very rich in bulbous plants. In general, ephemeroids in Kyrgyzstan are widespread and belong to different taxa (families, tribes, and genera). The article discusses the current state of tulips on the northern macroslope of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too. Strong polymorphism, frequent hybridizations, especially among tulips, as well as change in the color of flowers during drying of the herbarium make scientific identification of individual species quite difficult. The article presents results of initial research on the annual conservation regime of the tulip population in the eastern region of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too. According to the obtained data, tulips are responsive to the conservation regime.

Vegetation monitoring was carried out on test plots, which were established in 2019, as well as on control plots. All plots are of the same dimension (10 x 10 m2). 5 test plots, which were fenced with chain-link mesh to protect against livestock, were allocated for semi-stationary monitoring. To analyze comparative characteristics and identify the stage of demutation of test plots, monitoring of 10 control plots was carried out in identical adjacent territories.

The number of wild tulips in the test plots fenced a year ago is much higher than in the control plots. The conservation regime for one year had a positive effect on the vegetation cover of the mid-mountain belt. In a short period of time, the demutation stage is observed for the entire floristic composition of the communities. The short-term (1-year) conservation regime had a positive effect on the floristic composition of the communities, the projective cover of the herbage, the increase in the abundance of wild tulips, and contributed to the accumulation of steppe mat.

Keywords: ephemeroids, tulip, subendemics, anthropogenic impact, test plot, control plot, fruit-bearing specimens, fencing, demutation, total projective cover.

Funding: All activities in the field were carried out as part of the «Protection of wild tulips and support of pasture communities in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan» project. The work was carried out jointly with partner organizations: the branch of «Fauna and Flora International» in the Kyrgyz Republic, the «Bioresurs» Public Foundation, and the «Association of Forest and Land Users of Kyrgyzstan,» with financial support from the Darwin Initiative program of the UK Government.




Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 104-114

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UDC 599.735.53:591.5


© 2022.   A.A. Lushchekina, T.Yu. Karimova, V.M. Neronov

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences

33, Leninsky Prospect, Moscow, 119071, Russia. E-mail: rusmabcom@gmail.com

Received May 7, 2022. RevisedJune 15, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

Over the last hundred years biodiversity has decreased dramatically across the globe.  Currently, there are more than 142,500 species listed in the IUCN Red List, with more than 40,000 species threatened with extinction (The IUCN…, 2022).  Red Data Books of various levels are the lists of rare and threatened species, with the description of their past and present distribution, characteristics of reproduction, and current and needed conservation actions.  Red Data Books provide a formal legal basis for establishing a legally binding framework for the protection of the listed species.

The new edition of the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2021) includes four species of ungulates, that play an important role in steppe and desert biocoenoses. Two of them do not occur in the wild in Russia any more–the Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalskii Poljakov, 1881) since the 19th century and kulan (Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775) since the early 20th century, and the status of saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica Linnaeus, 1766) and the Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas, 1777) populations raise the serious concerns.The dropout of members of these species from ecosystems would cause not only the loss of biodiversity of arid bioms but also their degradation.

The kulan was for the last time observed in Transbaikalia in Russia in 1926 and plans of this species reintroduction into the wild in Dauria and Transbaikalia have been discussed for almost 20 years, but the implementation of reintroduction project may carry a high level of risks in many aspects.

The size and status of the Mongolian gazelle population in Russia, at the northern edge of the species natural range, largely depends on the status of the species in Mongolia.  The Mongolian gazelle became extinct in Altai, Tuva, and Transbaikalia in the 1970s–1980s but the growth of the North Kherlen population in Mongolia that began in the 1990s had led to the restoration of winter migrations of the Mongolian gazelle to the South Eastern Transbaikalia, while favourable weather conditions and effective protection measures implemented in two Biosphere Nature Reserves (Daursky and Sokhondinsky) and «the Valley of Dzeren» Federal Reserve had resulted in establishing several resident groups of these ungulates (Kirilyuk, Lushekina, 2017), with the total number of animals currently reaching 20,000 individuals (Kirilyuk, 2021).

It is the first time that the saiga antelope has been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation.  Even in the 1980s, the total population size amounting to about 400 thousand animals did not raise any concern.  However, overhunting, extensive agriculture, loss of suitable habitats, poaching, economic crisis, and suspension of the work of the wildlife conservation authorities all caused the dramatic reduction in saiga numbers in the Northwest Pre-Caspian region that had dropped to 4,000–5,000 individuals by 2015 (Karimova, Lushekina, 2018).

Not long ago, all of these three species were considered as game animals.  However, ecologically unsustainable types of economic development of arid areas (ploughing and reclamation of lands, overgrazing, building of roads and other technical constructions without consideration of regional specifics, etc.) contributed, directly or indirectly, to the decline of the species ranges and affected seasonal migrations and spatial distribution of animals, which eventually resulted in the decline of the populations, increased vulnerability of animals to extreme weather conditions (snowy winters, droughts, wildfires, etc.), and high pressure of legal and illegal hunting.  The future of these unique animals depends primarily on the humans and their attitudes towards their natural environment.  The thriving of these species will be supported by the implementation of measures developed by experts and listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, as well as in the approved species conservation strategies.

Keywords: Red Data Book, species conservation, the kulan, the saiga antelope, the Mongolian gazelle.

Funding. The work was carried out on the topic of research at the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, State Task No. 1021062812203-8 «Fundamental problems of wildlife conservation and rational use of biological resources».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-104-114



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 115-131


UDC 502.35;504.052


© 2021   G.S. Kust*, M.H. Durikov*, V.A. Lobkovskiy*, O.V. Andreeva*, M.D. Nepesov*, B.K. Mamedov*, N.V. Nikolaev**

*Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences 29, Staromonetny per., Moscow, 119017, Russia. E-mail: kust@igras.ru

**Scientific and Information Centre of the Inter-state Commission for Sustainable Development of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea 15, St. Bitarap,Ashgabat, 744000, Turkmenistan. E-mail: durikovmh@gmail.com

***Technology Center of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan 180, Bekrava str., Ashgabat, 744000, Turkmenistan. E-mail: nnico@mail.ru

ReceivedMay 12, 2022.RevisedJuly 1, 2022. AcceptedJuly 1, 2022.

Setting National targets for achieving Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) and establishing monitoring systems for indicators is an important strategic objective in combating desertification and preventing land degradation in Turkmenistan, arising from the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goal 15.3 2030. The paper demonstrates the possibility of integrating of the LDN global indicators in the National Land Cover Monitoring System, which is currently under development, and provided with statistical and geoinformation data for the entire territory of the country. The paper shows how approaches can be developed to integrate the system of LDN indicators into the National Land Surface Monitoring System of Turkmenistan, which is currently under development, with the provision of statistical and geoinformation data for the entire country. Despite important new data obtained using global approaches, a reliable LDN monitoring basing on national data is currently not fully feasible, due to the fact that the global indicators are not sufficiently supported by available national data and do not correspond to global proxy indicators of dynamics land cover, land productivity and soil organic carbon. It is recommended to use cartographic and stock data collected and processed in the late 1980s-90s of the 20th century as a «baseline» for monitoring land degradation, as well as assessment data of the statement of protected areas. Additional and alternative LDN indicators of particular importance for Turkmenistan are proposed: salinization of soil and land, soil deflation, climate aridity, dust storms.

Keywords: Land Degradation Neutrality, Turkmenistan, land degradation, indicators, monitoring.

Financing. The article was prepared within the framework of the project of the GIZ Regional Program «Integrated Land Use taking into account climate change in Central Asia» (ILUCA) – collection of material and preliminary conclusions; topics of the State Assignment of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences No. FMWS-2022-0001 «Spatial and temporal problems of sustainable land use in the context of global climate change» (spatial data processing and formulation the main provisions and conclusions).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-115-131



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 132-139


UDC 332.3; 504.5; 504.06

Ecological and economic assessment of agricultural land degradation in the Central and Western zones of the Republic of Tuva

© 2022.   A.D. Sambuu, A.O. Oxuluk, A.Yu. Kaldar-ool

Tuva Institute of exploration of natural resources of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 117А, Internacionalnaya str., Kyzyl, 667007, Russian Federation. E-mail: sambuu@mail.ru

Received January 26, 2022. Revised June 30, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The presented ecological and economic assessment of agricultural lands of the Republic of Tuva is developed taking into account the theoretical foundations of the economic assessment of the value of land and methods of valuation of environmentally significant factors. According to the agricultural and natural-economic zoning of the East Siberian region, the Republic of Tuva is classified as a steppe sheep-cattle breeding zone. For the purpose of more rational placement and scientifically-based specialization of agricultural production, the territory of Tuva is divided into 4 agricultural zones (Economy of the Tuva ASSR, 1973). The agricultural lands of the research area are included in the Central agricultural zone, mainly agricultural subtayga, livestock-grain steppe, and in the Western agricultural zone, mainly livestock-grain. These are the largest, developed and densely populated parts of the republic, where most of the arable land, 2/3 of hayfields and pastures, more than 80% of the population of the republic are concentrated. The territories of farmland are located within the dry-steppe, steppe and forest-steppe natural and climatic zones. The climate is characterized by the greatest degree of aridity. The main types of soils on arable lands are chestnut sandy loam soils subject to wind erosion – 60%, chernozems – 23% and alluvial turf soils – 15%. The performed assessment shows that the total damage from soil degradation for the Central and Western agricultural zones of the republic is estimated at more than 3.5 billion rubles, which is about a third of the value of the lands belonging to the agricultural lands of the republic. A decrease in the value of land for the period 2012 to 2017 was revealed for the Tandinsky district – 54.1% and the Chedi-Kholsky district – 47.2%, which is associated with soil degradation (according to signs of soil erosion, humus reserves, the content of mobile phosphorus and potassium, the specific area of land experiencing significant anthropogenic loads)..

Keywords: ecological and economic assessment, soil degradation, agricultural zone, depression, Republic of Tuva.

Financing. The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of the scientific project No. 19-29-05208\19 mk «Ecological and economic assessment of degradation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Tuva».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-132-139



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 140-152


UDC 631.417.1 (487)

Features of agricultural objects of arid territories of North-Western Mongolia and border regions of Tuva

© 2022.   T.N. Prudnikova

Tuva Scientific Center 4, Energetikov str., Kyzyl, 667007, Russia. E-mail: tprudnikova@inbox.ru

Received February 9, 2022. Revised July 1, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The author’s long-term research has made it possible to attribute the traditionally pastoral arid territories of Central Asia to the areas of agriculture that was widely developed in the past.

On the territory of Central Mongolia, Tuva, numerous traces of the settled agricultural population are known – for example, the ancient settlements of the early Middle Ages.

The Ubsunur basin with scattered sands and its main watercourse, the valley of the Tes-Khem River, located in the north-west of Mongolia, were not specifically considered earlier from the point of view of the presence of ancient agriculture there.

Nevertheless, the author found traces of a real agricultural civilization on the designated territory. A variety of the irrigation systems, traces of ancient settlements and settlements, features of ancient agricultural landscapes suggest conducting full-fledged studies of the ancient history of that region, studying the consequences of anthropogenic impact on the environment.

The proposed article presents individual agricultural objects, the features of which are of great interest for understanding the history of the development of human civilization both on the territory of the Ubsunur basin, the basin of the Teshem River, and Central Asia as a whole. The work is based on the interpretation of satellite images (Google resources, free access), landscape observations, the use of geological, geographical, archaeological, historical methods, toponymy, complex soil studies. Paleogeographic characteristics are presented on the basis of carpological analyses.

Powerful anthropogenic impact on the environment (deforestation, use of agro-irrigation landscapes for pastures with subsequent overgrazing) it contributed to the degradation of soils, the lowering of groundwater, the formation of desolate landscapes, the extinction of agriculture.

The comprehensive studies of ancient agriculture developed by the author lay the foundations for landscape archaeology of arid territories of Central Asia.

The objects for research are agricultural settlements and irrigation systems in the upper reaches of the Tes-Khem River valley (Mongolia), confined to the zones of young tectonic faults, the field of development of Cenozoic basaltoids, on the absolute altitude about 1700 m, as well as a settlement in its lower reaches, consisting, according to decoding, of small clay structures, not affected by later anthropogenic impact (Mongolia). The study of land plots in the lake area is very informative. Shara-Nur (Ubsunur basin, Tuva), confined to low-lying peat bogs and torn-off soils. Wheat grains were previously found in similar torn-off soils on the territory of neighboring Mongolia.

Powerful anthropogenic impact on the environment (deforestation, use of agro-irrigation landscapes for pastures with subsequent overgrazing) it contributed to the degradation of soils, the lowering of groundwater, the formation of desolate landscapes, the extinction of agriculture.

The comprehensive studies of ancient agriculture developed by the author lay the foundations for landscape archaeology of arid territories of Central Asia.

Keywords: North-Western Mongolia, Ubsunur basin, ancient agricultural objects, traces of settlements, land plots, irrigation canals, Tsetserleg, Shara-Nur, Tes-Khem, Cenozoic volcanism.




Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol.28, No. 4 (93), P. 153-162


UDC 581.55(633.2/.3) +528.912 (574.55)


© 2022.   L.A. Dimeyeva*, Zh.K. Salmukhanbetova*, D.V. Malakhov**

*Institute of Botany &Phytointroduction of the Ministry of Ecology, Geology, Natural resourses 36-D, Timiryazev str., Almaty, 050040, Republic of Kazakhstan. E-mail: l.dimeyeva@mail.ru, zhuldyz.kanatkyzy@mail.ru

**Institute of Zoology of the Ministry of Education & Science 93, al-Farabi Av., Almaty, 050060, Republic of Kazakhstan. Е-mail: d_malakhov_73@mail.ru

Received May 2, 2022. Revised July 1, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The article presents a medium–scale Rangeland map of the Kaskakulan cluster area in the Barsa Kelmes Nature Reserve, where wild ungulates – kulans, saigas and goitered gazelles live. Ground and remote sensing data were used  to develop the map. The author’s methodology and a set of spectral indices were used processing satellite data. Based on the interpretation of satellite images, maps of seasonal rangeland yields have been developed which were considered in calculating the aboveground phytomass. The legend to the map is a system of headings that take into account zoning, ecological and physiognomic vegetation types and soil conditions. The types of rangelands are reflected in the legend by 15 mapping units, for each the aboveground phytomass for the seasons of the year is given.The map can be used for assessment of forage resourses of the territory and determination of the permissible number of wild ungulates to maintain ecosystems in a balanced state.

Keywords: Aral Sea, forage resourses, remote sensing, yield, medium-scale map.

Financing. The research was carried out with the financial support of the Mikael Zukkov Foundation (ScpFoundation / Greifswald, Germany) through the Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity of Kazakhstan and the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-153-162



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 163-178


UDC 556.545, 574.5, 639.2/.3

Hydroecological condition of the Agrakhan Bay and possibilities for its improvement

© 2022.   D.V. Magritsky*, A.V. Goncharov*, V.M. Moreido*, **, M.A. Samokhin*, A.S. Abdusamadov**, S.V. Kuptsov*, G.S. Dzhamirzoev****, *****, O.N. Erina*, D.I. Sokolov*, V.S. Arkhipkin*, M.A. Tereshina*, V.V. Surkov*, A.A. Semenova*

*Department of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University 1, Leninskie gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia. E-mail: magdima@yandex.ru

**Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 3, Gubkina str., Moscow, 119333, Russia. E-mail: moreido@mail.ru

***The Caspian Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries (CaspNIRKh) 1, Savushkina str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russia. E-mail: a.abdusamadov@mail.ru

****State Nature Reserve «Dagestan» 120, Gagarina str., Makhachkala, 367032, Russia. E-mail: dzhamir@mail.ru

*****A.K. Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences 37a, I.Armand str., Nalchik, 360051, Russia. E-mail: dzhamir@mail.ru

Received May 11, 2022. Revised June 30, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

In the XX century, as a result of a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, there was a significant transformation of the Agrakhan Bay on the eastern coast of the Terek Delta. The comprehensive studies carried out in 2018-2020 made it possible to identify the main causes of this degradation, characterize the current state of the reservoir and scientifically substantiate recommendations for its improvement. It is shown that as a result of shallowing and reduction of the area of the water mirror, the bay has lost its former significance as a spawning and growing reservoir that provides the Western Caspian region with young valuable commercial fish species. Catches by 2018 fell by 10 times compared to the beginning of the XX century; sturgeon, which used to be famous for the Agrakhan Bay, practically disappeared. Especially unfavorable is the state of the northern part of the bay, which has turned into a group of shallow reservoirs, little connected with each other and with the sea. And the situation continues to deteriorate every year.

The study of hydrological-morphological, hydrobiological, fishery, hydrochemical parameters showed that there is hope for improving the condition of wetlands on the site of the former bay. A detailed analysis of the water balance using multivariate limnological calculations showed that there is sufficient water for flooding and partial restoration of water bodies of the hydrographic system of the Agrakhan Bay. Clearing silted and overgrown channels, deepening and collapsing of preserved reservoirs, directing the necessary volumes of river water to the Northern and Southern Agrakhan (in accordance with the calculated supply schedule), will reduce overgrowth and siltation of water bodies, restore water exchange between them, improve water quality, revive the fisheries of the region, improve the habitat conditions of many rare and protected animal species, increase the recreational attractiveness of the region.

Keywords: Agrakhan Bay, Caspian Sea, fisheries, degradation of the bay, water quality, ecological condition, ecological rehabilitation, spawning-growing reservoirs, rare species, hydrological modeling

Financing. The collection and analysis of materials was carried out under a state contract with the West Caspian STB No. NIR-18-01. The preparation of the article was carried out within the framework of the research of the Department of Land Hydrology of the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University, carried out within the framework of the state task (CITIS number: 121051400038-1).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-163-178



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 179-188


UDC639.311; 591.111.1


© 2022.   N.V. Sudakova*, M.A. Elnakib**, ***,  N.I. Rabazanov****

*St. Petersburg State University of Veterinarian Medicine 5, Chernigovskaya str., St. Petersburg, 196084, Russia. E-mail: sudakorm@mail.ru

**Astrakhan State University 20a, Tatishchevastr., Astrakhan, 414056, Russia. E-mail: mahmoud.biotech@azhar.edu.eg

***Al-AzharUniversity Nasr Road, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: mahmoud.biotech@azhar.edu.eg

****Caspian Institute of Biological Resources of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (PIBR DFRC RAS) 45, M. Gadzhiyev str., Makhachkala, 367000, Russia. E-mail:rnuh@mail.ru

ReceivedMay 17, 2022. Revised June 30, 2022. AcceptedJuly 1, 2022.

The study is aimed at assessing the state of reproductive function by fish-hematological and morphophysiological indicators of female copepods Polyodons pathula (Walbaum, 1792), which have repeatedly matured and given caviar for food and fish-breeding purposes. The work was carried out in 2019-2020 in the scientific and experimental aquaculture complex «BIOS» in the Astrakhan region. It has been established that the age of fish, the number of ripening and internerest periods are the most important factors that made it possible to compare the fish-biological indicators of female copepods that matured and gave caviar in 2020. The stability of the fatness coefficient explains the degree of reproductive activity of female copepods. There are no significant differences in morphophysiological parameters between age groups, as well as between females from which caviar of various purposes was obtained. Analysis of the leukocyte blood formula of the studied female copepods showed more lymphoid character and viscoelastic properties of leukocytes, as well as cell agglutination properties were noted when separate blood components were separated. The distribution of white blood cell types differed slightly depending on age composition (CV = 35.55 and 35.23%, P < 0.05, CV = 23.96 and 30.92%, P < 0.05, 23 and 18 years, respectively). The results of hematological studies showed that the younger generation (18 years) of female copepods from which caviar was obtained for nutritional purposes is more adapted than older ones (23 years), and the development of reproductive function is less susceptible to stress factors during maturation. A different picture is observed for fish that gave caviar for fish breeding purposes.

Keywords: female copepods, age of maturation, internerest periods, caviar yield, hemoglobin, total serum protein, leukocyte formula, reproductive function.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-179-188



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 189-200


UDC 574.583+574.635+550.42(571.55)


© 2022.   E.Yu. Afonina, N.A. Tashlykova, L.V. Zamana, A.P. Kuklin, L.P. Chechel, V.A. Abramova

Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 16a , Nedorezova str., Chita, 672014, Russia. E-mail: kataf@mail.ru

Received January 13, 2022. Revised June 30, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

Water bodies of anthropogenic genesis, as a special component of the technogenic landscape, are characterized by ecological conditions that differ from natural ones. There are limited catchment area, low thickness of bottom sediments, and high content of metals, metalloids and solids. The objects of our study are various lacustrine formations formed during the development of mineral deposits in Eastern Transbaikalia. In present paper, the hydrochemical composition and hydrobiont species diversity and structure have been characterized by technogenic reservoirs of mining territories, different in formation and their purposes. Algae and zooplankton of technogenic water bodies in the arid region are being studied for the first time. The investigated waters of technogenic reservoirs have various morphometric, physical and chemical characteristics with a wide range of pH values (2.99–8.80), total dissolved solids (85.9–9065 mg/l), ore and accompanying elements. By chemical composition, water relates to sulfate and bicarbonate-sulfate one with different ratios of magnesium and calcium. The algal flora and zooplankton species diversity in the studied water bodies is low (75 taxa of plankton algae, 8 taxa of macroalgae, 63 species and subspecies of plankton invertebrates), which is obviously associated with the extreme ecological conditions, where the species richness is a consequence of the influence of physical and chemical conditions of the habitat. The micro- and macro-component composition, total mineralization are the determining factors for the Cryptophyta abundance and biomass and the content of bicarbonates determines the density of Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Dynophyta. Quantitative indicators of zooplankton are positively related to the concentration of ammonium nitrogen (for Crustacea) and negatively to pH (Rotifera).

Keywords: deposit, technogenic water bodies, hydrochemical composition, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton.

Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task of fundamental scientific research, state registration no. 121032200070-2.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-189-200



Arid Ecosystems, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 4 (93), P. 201-210


UDC 582.26.574.2


© 2022.   O.G.Gorohova, T. D. Zinchenko

Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin of the Russian Academy of Sciences 10, Komzina str., Togliatti, 445003, Russia. E-mail: o.gorokhova@yandex.ru, zinchenko.tdz@yandex.ru

Received May 24, 2022. Revised July 1, 2022. Accepted July 1, 2022.

The results of long-term (2008, 2012-2019) studies of phytoplankton and phytobenthos of seven highly mineralized rivers of the Elton region are presented. The flora of algae includes 214 taxa from 7 systematic divisions, Bacillariophyta are leading in terms of species richness and quantitative development. A comparative description of the taxonomic structure and species diversity of communities in the mineralization gradient is given. Structure-forming species were identified as widespread euryhaline taxa: ChaetocerosmuelleriLemm., Conticribraweissflogii (Grun.) S.-Suchoples et Williams, NitzschiaclosteriumEhr., Halamphoracoffeaeformis(Ag.) Meresch.,Achnanthesbrevipes Ag., (Bacillariophyta), and also Cyanoprokaryota – Phormidium breve (Kütz. ex Gom.) Anagn. &Kom., Oscillatoria limosaAg. ex Gom., O. tenuis Ag. ex Gom., Geitlerinemaamphibium(Ag. ex Gom.) Anagn. Under conditions of critical salinity for rivers, species of the genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) dominate. It is shown that the abundance and biomass of algae in algocenoses vary widely and do not depend on the level of mineralization. Specific species richness is characterized by a weak negative correlation with mineralization in mesohaline rivers and significant (R -0.50, R -0.52, p <0.05) in polyhaline rivers. The seasonal dynamics of plankton algocenoses is expressed in changes in the species structure, abundance, and biomass.

Keywords: salt rivers, Lake Elton, algocenoses.

Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task «Assessment of modern biodiversity and forecast of its changes for the ecosystems of the Volga basin in the conditions of their natural and anthropogenic transformation» (AAAAA–A17-117112040040-3), as well as with the financial support of the RFBR (17-04-00135).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-4-201-210