1.

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 3-13

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UDC 911.2 (470.56)

STABILITY OF PHYTOMASS DYNAMICS IN PROTECTED LOW MOUNTAIN-STEPPE LANDSCAPES AND PASTURES IN THE SOUTHERN URALS

© 2022.   A.V. Khoroshev

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography, 1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia. E-mail: avkh1970@yandex.ru

Received November 14, 2021. Revised March 30, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

In the steppe zone, the high sensitivity of the vegetation cover to humidification contrasts raises the question of the dependence of the intraseasonal dynamics of phytomass on the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and relief in a landscape. We performed a case study in the Aituarskaya steppe (Orenburg region) to test the hypothesis about the inequality of the spatial factors of variability of functioning under the conditions of the reserve regime and pasture impact. Based on the frequency of occurrence of five gradations of deviations of the intraseasonal increments of the vegetation index NDVI from the mean values, the measure of instability of the types of dynamics of green phytomass (Shannon’s index) was calculated. The relationship between the types of dynamics and the types of natural boundaries, due to belonging to the relief forms with the characteristic types of phytocenoses, has been established. Areas of the most unstable phytoproductive functioning are characteristic of valleys with meadow steppes. The reserve regime stabilizes the dynamics of phytomass due to a higher subordination to landscape-scale climatic processes. On grazed areas, frequent changes in the variants of phytomass increments are more characteristic and dependence on local factors (e.g., stoniness, groundwater level) increases. In the pasture area, in some places, the dominant dynamics becomes with an intensive late spring accumulation of phytomass and a small decrease or renewal by the end of summer due to an increase in the proportion of non-palatable and grazing-resistant species.

Keywords: steppe, landscape, reserve, pasture, phytomass, NDVI, seasonal dynamics, stability, relief, Urals.

Acknowledgements. Expressing gratitude to D.E. Sharova, O.M. Podgorny, I.V. Volovinsky, G.M. Leonova for participation in field research and arrangement of remote materials and to reviewers for constructive comments.

Financing. The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 20-05-00464 «Spatial structure as a factor of stability of landscape functioning», 2020-2022.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-3-13

EDN: AKLXRP

2.

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 14-22

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UDC 581.5: 528.94

SPATIAL DATABASE OF ECOSYSTEM OF THE BAIKAL BASIN

© 2022 .  S.N. Bazha*, A.V. Andreev*, E.A. Bogdanov*, E.V. Danzhalova*, I.A. Petukhov*, Yu.A. Rupyshev**

*A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 33, Leninskyi Avenue, Moscow, 119071, Russia. E-mail: monexp@mail.ru

**Institute of General and Experimental biology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 6, Sakhyanovoy Str., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia. E-mail: rupyshev@mail.ru

Received March 1, 2022. Revised March 20, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

We created a new dataset of spatially interpolated ecosystems for the Baikal Basin at a middle spatial resolution (scale of 1:500 000), divided into 71 mesocombinations of plant communities and their anthropogenically transformed derivatives. A digital layer-map divided into 31 types of morphogenetic types of relief was developed to display the spatial variability of the selected geobotanical units. The layer-map for the soil cover was obtained using interpolation of various published thematic data, and was supplemented with archival and long-term data collected from the field studies. The prepared database was added by a very high resolution spatial data of ecosystems and their anthropogenic disturbance for 9 model polygons (more than 1:200000), key sites (1:5000‑1:10000), and 1,757 geobotanical descriptions where created by the authors earlier. The 5.1 GB spatial database is a mapping web service located at https://mon-exp.nextgis.com/resource/. It is intended for open use on any personal computers, workstations, laptops, tablets, Smart phones running Windows and Android, including mobile ones with Internet access.

Keywords: database, GIS, ecosystems, Baikal basin, ecological mapping.

Financing. The research was carried out within the framework of the Scientific Program of the Joint Russian-Mongolian Integrated Biological Expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, as well as with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant No. 17-29-05019 «Dangerous degradation processes and their role in the formation of anthropogenically transformed landscapes in the Baikal basin».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-14-22

EDN: AXHAKK

3.

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 23-34

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UDC 574.472

CONSERVATION PRIORITIZATION CRITERIA TO IDENTIFY RARITY OF THE PLANT SPECIES, HABITATS AND COMMUNITIES IN THE LAHAUL VALLEY, TRANS NORTH-WESTERN HIMALAYA, INDIA

© 2022.   A. Singh*, S.S. Samant**, L. Manohar***, P. Sharma****

*CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Post Box No. 6, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176061, India. E-mail: ashoksingh@ihbt.res.in

**Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 171013, India. E-mail: dir_hfri@icfre.org, samantss2@rediffmail.com

***G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment, Himachal Regional Centre, Mohal, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, 175126, India. E-mail: manoharlal.thakur@gmail.com

****Himachal Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Office of Himachal Pradesh Council for Science, Technology and Environment. O/o Paryavaran Bhawan, near US Club, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 171001, India. E-mail: spankaj80@gmail.com

Received September 6, 2021. Revised March 30, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

The rapid increase in the rarity of species is an alarming threat that the world is facing today. Like other mountainous regions of the world, fragile mountains in the Himalayas are facing tremendous pressure for species extinction. The studied data at the locality site-specific level in comparison to the global and country-level status has realized us to analyze the extinction rate for monitoring. By realizing the importance, criteria based survey analysis of each species on various habitats, distribution range patterns, population size, use pattern, extraction trend, native and endemic species were evaluated. A total of 255 threatened species (20 critical endangered, 30 endangered, 60 vulnerable, and 144 near-threaten) were identified from the Lahaul valley in parts of the Cold desert north-western Himalaya, India. The studies themselves suggest the occurrence of maximum biotic and abiotic pressures with limited diversity. The altitudinal zone 2800-3800 m AMSL; habitats (forest, shady moist, dry, rocky, bouldery, and grassland); and communities of trees (Cedrus deodara-Acer cappadocicum mixed, Juglans regia-Ulmus wallichiana-Acer acuminatum mixed, Salix fragilis-Fraxinus xanthoxyloides mixed, Abies pindrow-Pinus wallichiana mixed and Crataegus songarica), shrubs (Juniperus indica, Juniperus communis-Rosa webbiana mixed, Spiraea canescens, Salix pycnostachya, Lonicera obovata, Cassiope fastigiata, Juniperus communis-Lonicera obovata mixed, Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica and Rhododendron anthopogon-Salix lindleyana mixed), and herbs (Waldheimia glabra-Leontopodium himalayanum-Rhodiola heterodontata-Agrostis stolonifera mixed and Leontopodium brachyactis-Saxifraga jacquemontiana-S. brunonis mixed) showed maximum conservation prioritization index value of threatened species, which requires monitoring attention for future conservation. The information is useful for the site-specific mapping of rare plants, communities, and habitats for quick planning and implementation program.

Keywords: Rarity identification criteria, diversity, distribution, habitat-wise, community basis, conservation prioritization index value.

Acknowledgment and Financing. We acknowledge the Directors of respective Institutes like GBPNIHE Almora India and CSIR-IHBT Palampur Himachal Pradesh, India for providing us the necessary research facilities with encouragement. The fund received from MOEF&CC (New Delhi) is highly acknowledged.

Conflict of Interests. Authors of this paper declare that there is no conflict of interests for publishing the data.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-23-34

EDN: BIPBLS

4.

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 34-42

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UDC 581.552+504.732; 504.7+470.67

COENOFLORA OF BIRCH AND PINE FORESTS OF THE GUNIB PLATEAU (DAGESTAN)

© 2022.   D.S. Kessel*, Z.I. Abdurakhmanova**, K.V. Shchukina*, M.G. Gadzhiataev**

*W.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2, Prof. Popova Str., Saint Petersburg, 197376, Russia

**Mountain Botanical Garden Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 45, M. Gadzhieav Str., Makhachkala, 367000, Russia. E-mail: dasha_kessel@mail.ru, zagidat.abdurahmanova88@mail.ru, Vyatka_ks_72@mail.ru, gadzhiataev@mail.ru

Received December 31, 2021. Revised February 22, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

The results of the analysis and comparison of the coenoflora of birch (Betula litwinowii Doluch., B. raddeana Trautv) and pine (Pinus kochiana Klotsch ex G. Koch.) forests of the Gunib plateau (Inland mountain limestone Dagestan) are presented. The forests on the Gunib plateau are confined to the northern, north-eastern and north-western slopes, they occur at altitudes of 1400 — 2170 m above sea level. The analysis was carried out on the basis of field research materials 2011-2013, 2018-2020 — 53 standard geobotanical descriptions. When collecting the material, the task was to reflect as much as possible the diversity of communities of birch and pine forests of the Gunib plateau.

The species composition of vascular plants of birch (251 species) and pine (226 species) forests was revealed. The spectra of the leading families of both coenoflora were compared. Both cenoflora belong to Rosaceae-type that is characteristic of the Central European group of flora. The leading 6 families account for 50% of the cenoflora species of birch and pine forests (129 and 113 species, respectively). 130 species are common to communities of birch and pine forests.

The species composition of dominants and codominants of the grass-shrub layer of birch and pine forests is analyzed. Species that play a significant role in the communities of only one of these formations have been identified, despite the fact that both formations occupy similar ecotopes and in most cases the same species are dominant and co-dominant of the grass-shrub layer in these communities.

The ratio of florocenoelements in the grass-shrub layer of birch and pine forests is determined. A greater number of species belonging to the forest cenotype grow in birch forests: 29% of forest species from the total number of species in birch forests and 21% in pine forests. There are fewer species characteristic of meadows, including subalpine and alpine, in birch (57%) forests than in pine (64%). Also, fewer ruderal species were found in birch forests (2.5%) than in pine forests (4.5%). One of the reasons for the revealed ratio of species belonging to forest, meadow and ruderal florocenotypes in the coenoflora of birch and pine forests, in our opinion, is the peculiarities of the renewal of these forest-forming species on the Gunib plateau.

The analysis made it possible to identify differences in the habitats occupied by birch and pine forests at extreme values of light and moisture availability.

Keywords: Betula litwinowii, Betula raddeana, Pinus kochiana, vegetation, birch forests, pine forests, Gunib plateau, Dagestan.

Aknowledgements. The authors are grateful for the help in conducting field research of the Director of the Mining Botanical Garden of the OP of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Z.M. Asadulaev, Head of the Ecological and Botanical station «Pyatigorsk» of the BIN RAS, Candidate of Biological Sciences, D.S. Shilnikov, N.S.W. of the Laboratory of General Geobotany of the BIN RAS N.S. Liksakova.

Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the planned theme of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Vegetation of European Russia and Northern Asia: diversity, dynamics, principles of organization» (No. 121032500047-1) and the planned theme of the Laboratory of Introduction and Genetic Resources of Woody Plants of the Mountain Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Structural and functional features of plant communities with populations of rare and resource tree species (on the example of the Eastern Caucasus)» (No. AAAAA-A19-119020890099-4).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-35-42

EDN: CHUXIK

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 43-50

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UDC 582.746.51+581.524.2

INVASION OF ACER NEGUNDO L. IN THE NATIONAL PARK «BUZULUK PINE FOREST»

© 2022.   L.M. Abramova*, V.S. Agishev**, R.M. Haziakhmetov**, Z.H. Shigapov*

*South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian, Academy of Sciences, 195, Building 3, Mendeleeva Str., Ufa, 450080, Russia. E-mail: abramova.lm@mail.ru

** Zaki Validi Bashkir State University, 32, Zaki Validi Str., Ufa, 450076, Russia. E-mail: eco3110@rambler.ru

Received January 28, 2022. Revised April 4, 2022. Accepted April 5, 2022.

The results of the study of the immigration of Acer negundo L. into floodplain forests dominated by Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn in the National Park «Buzuluk Pine Forest» in the Orenburg Region are given. In this region, the species is found in a variety of afforestations: according to modern data, it occupies more than 20 thousand hectares, or about 5% of the total area of the forest fund, is actively naturalized in natural floodplain forests, is included in the «black-list» of the Orenburg region, «black-lists» of nearby regions and the «black hundred» of invasive species of Russia as a whole. The work was carried out on two ribbons of test areas on the right and left banks of the Borovka River, flowing through the protected area (total 65 areas 20 × 50 m). The woody floodplain phytocenoses of Borovka River are formed mainly by A. glutinosa, Salix alba L., A. negundo and Populus nigra L. The dominant breed throughout the study area is A. glutinosa (occurrence 100%), the average number of which is 545 pcs/ha (80.43% of the total number of trees), which is significantly more than the total number of all other tree species. The average number of A. negundo is 34 pcs/ha (occurrence — 66.2%), the invasion species ranks third among tree species, after S. alba (46 pcs/ha, occurrence 63.1%). Another 11 wood species are classified as species of little importance in the floodplain communities of the Borovka River. According to the data obtained, the dense mature riverine forest, formed mainly by A. glutinosa with an admixture of S. alba and P. nigra, maintains the balance of its species diversity, and the invasion and dominance degree of A. negundo does not exceed the values of a secondary species with an average participation in phytocenoses 5% (maximum — 17-20% on separate test areas). The invasion of A. negundo into the floodplain forests of the National Park «Buzuluk Pine Forest» leads to undesirable floristic pollution of a specially protected natural area.

Keywords: National Park «Buzuluk Pine Forest», floodplain forests, Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., invasion, Acer negundo L., domination index.

Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task of the South Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, topic No. AAAA18-118011990151-7 «Biodiversity of natural systems and plant resources of Russia: assessment of the state and monitoring of dynamics, problems of conservation, reproduction, increase and sustainable use».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-43-50

EDN: CKMYNV

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 51-61

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UDC 581.5 (575.13)

THE CURRENT STATE OF THE SALSOLA ARBUSCULIFORMIS, ANABASIS SALSA PASTURES OF KARAKALPAK USTURT (UZBEKISTAN)

© 2022.   N.K. Rakhimova, T. Rakhimova

Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 32, Durmon juli Str., Tashkent, 100125, Uzbekistan. E-mail: rakhimovanodi@mail.ru

Received February 22, 2022. Revised March 23, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

The article is devoted to the study of the current state of pastures of the Chernoboyalyshev-Biyurgun (Anabasis salsa, Salsola arbusculiformis) type, common in the territory of Karakalpak Ustyurt (Uzbekistan). The results of field studies of the species composition and productivity of plant communities with the dominance of Salsola arbusculiformis are presented and the reasons for the difference between the obtained data and the data of Karakalpak researchers of the 1970s are discussed. These pastures cover half of the northern and eastern parts of the territory (1,291,414 ha) and are distributed on gravelly, loamy, takyr-alkaline, gypsum soils of the Karakalpak Ustyurt, which includes 4 pasture varieties: shrub-white-earth wormwood-black boletus (Salsola arbusculiformis, Artemisia terrae- albae, Atraphaxis spinosa, Convolvulus fruticosus) with the participation of zaisan saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron); white-earth sagebrush-black balsam (Salsola arbusculiformis, Artemisia terrae-albae): a) with the participation of Convolvulus fruticosus, Rheum tataricum, Stipa richteriana; b) with the participation of Anabasis brachiata; biyurgun-black balsam (Salsola arbusculiformis, Anabasis salsa) with zaisan saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron) and shrubs (Salsola arbusculiformis, Atraphaxis spinosa, Convolvulus fruticosus). The area of the studied pasture varieties, the nature of the soil cover, the percentage of projective cover, landscape plant species, their placement, forage yield and recommended seasonality of use were determined. The composition of the vegetation remains monotonous due to complexes of boyalyshev, biyurgun and wormwood communities. Due to the lack of moisture in the year of observation (2021), the dominant species (Salsola arbusculiformis, Artemisia terrae-albae) showed a weak annual growth (up to 1 cm) and they were in a depressed state. The seasonal forage yield of pastures of the Salsola arbusculiformis, Anabasis salsa pastures ranges from 0.5 to 3.5 q/ha, the maximum yield occurs in the autumn period. According to estimates of the yield of the eatable part (c/ha), the studied pasture varieties are recommended to be used as an autumn-winter pasture.

Keywords: Republic of Karakalpakstan, Ustyurt, desertification, pasture difference, degradation, vegetation cover, productivity.

Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the State Program (PFI-5) «Assessment of the current state of vegetation cover and pasture resources of the Republic of Karakalpakstan».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-51-61

EDN: DVAHDI

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 62-68

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UDC 574.3:581 (470.67)

GEOBOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITIES WITH THE PARTICIPATION OF SALSOLA DAGHESTANICA (TURCZ.) TURCZ.) ON THE ARID SLOPES OF RIDGES EASTERN CAUCASUS

© 2022.   B.M. Magomedova, Z.M. Asadulaev

Mountain Botanical Garden of the Dagestan Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 45, M. Gadgieva Str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367000, Russia. E-mail: bary_m@mail.ru

Received March 11, 2022. Revised March 31, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

The results of the study of communities with the participation of Dagestan saltwort (Salsola daghestanica (Turcz.) Turcz.) in Piedmont and Inner-mountain Dagestan, where 108 species of flowering plants were identified, among which are: Caragana grandiflora (M. Bieb) DC.); endemics of the Greater Caucasus: Matthiola caspica (Busch) Grossh., Salvia canescens CA Mey, Elytrigia gracillima Nevski; endemic of Dagestan Convolvulus ruprechtii Boiss., as well as a species listed in the Red Data Book of Russian Federation Artemisia salsoloides Willd. Identified associations with the growth of a rare endemic species of Dagestan S. daghestanica Salsolosum graminioso-xeroherbosum, Salsolosum graminioso-artemisosum, Caraganetum varioherboso-graminosum, Caraganetum salsoloso-artemisosum are found only in the territory of the Eastern Caucasus. Caraganetum salsoloso-artemisosum was described on three sample plots on the northwestern and eastern slopes of the Nadyrbek Ridge with a steepness of 30-40º (near the village of Dubki, Piedmont Dagestan). The shrub layer (crown density up to 45%) is formed by 12 species, dominated Salsola daghestanica (Turcz.) Turcz. and Caragana grandiflora (M. Bieb) DC. The total cover of the grass-shrub layer is up to 60%; the species richness is relatively low (40 species), dominated by Artemisia taurica Willd. Caraganetum varioherboso-graminosum is described on the northwestern slope of the Nadyrbek Ridge (near the village of Dubki, Foothill Dagestan) with a steepness of 40º. The shrub layer (total crown density 29%) is formed by 9 species, the dominant is the large-flowered Caragana grandiflora DC., the occurrence of which is 20%. The herb-shrub layer is sparse, with a coverage of 4-5% there are Artemisia taurica Willd., Stipa caragana Trin., Salvia canescens C.A. Mey., Melica transsilvanica Schur. Salsolosum graminioso-artemisosum communities are described on the slopes of the Chakulabek Ridge in the vicinity of the village of Tsudahar (Inner mountain Dagestan). In a sparse tree-shrub (12%), S. daghestanica dominates with a crown density of 10%, prevails Colutea orientalis L., Spiraea hypericifolia L. The total projective cover of the grass-shrub layer is 54%; species richness is relatively low; Artemisia taurica Willd is dominant in abundance and projective cover (50%). Salsolosum graminioso-xeroherbosum is described on the slopes of the Chonkataw Ridge in the vicinity of the village Gubden (Foothill Dagestan). The tree-shrub layer is dominated by S. daghestanica with a crown density of 42%. In the grass-shrub layer, the dominant species with a projective cover of 3 to 5% are Artemisia taurica Willd (4%) and representatives of the Poaceae family: Festuca varia Haenke (4%), Elytrigia gracillima (3%), Stipa daghestanica Grossh.) (3%).

It is necessary to create protected areas in the areas of growth of the studied species for the conservation of plants in situ. The results of community studies are presented for the first time and can be used in monitoring work on rare endemic species.

Keywords: Salsola daghestanica, Dagestan, Red Book, plant communities, flora, endemic.

Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the State Task of the Mountain Botanical Garden of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Geoclimatic features of distribution and description of communities with populations of rare and resource tree species of the North Caucasus» No. 1021032423798-8-1.6.11.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-62-68

EDN: GDPSBC

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 69-83

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UDC 581.5

CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM COMPONENTS OF REclaimed SOLONETZES IN THE PRIERGENINSKAYA PLAIN DURING THE GROWING PERIOD (REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA)

© 2022.   N.M. Novikova*, Konyushkova M.V.**,***, S.S. Ulanova*****, N.A. Volkova*, Chemidov****, Bembeeva O.G. ****, Fedorova N.L. ****

*Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Gubkina Str., Moscow, 119333, Russia. Е-mail: nmnovikova@gmail.com

**M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Building 12, Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia. Е-mail: mkon@inbox.ru

***V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, 17, Building 2, Pyzhevsky Per., Moscow, 119017, Russia. Е-mail: mkon@inbox.ru

****Institute of Complex Research of Arid Areas, 111, Khomutnikova Str., Elista, Republic of Kalmykia, 358005, Russia. E-mail: svetaulanova@yandex.ru

Received March 15, 2022. Revised March 30, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

During the growing season of 2021, in early May, late June and early September, observations were carried out on the functioning of the main components of ecosystems recovering after reclamation at 8 sites of the IV experiment of the Arshan-Zelmen hospital, where reclamation work that lasted 20 years was stopped almost 50 years ago. Currently, soils belong to one type of highly transformed soils, the deep-saline agrozems. Arable (0-45 cm) and sub-arable (50-60 cm) horizons have been preserved in the soil profile. In 2018 in most areas, the content of salts and, in particular, chlorine ion increased in the subsurface horizon. These changes have not been reflected in vegetation, and the formation of plant communities characteristic of the final stages of secondary succession of light chestnut soils, not saline, continues. Hydrothermal conditions in 2021 during the observation period (May-September) can be assessed as arid – the doubly increased value of the average temperature for each month turned out to be higher than the value of precipitation that fell that month. Precipitation fell every month except July. The precipitation that fell during this period (176 mm) exceeded the average annual amount for these months of 2011-2021 by 1.3 times, and the sum of temperatures only by 2°C. Therefore, the hydrothermal conditions of the growing season of 2021 can be assessed as more favorable for the functioning of ecosystem components than in other years.

Comparison of data characterizing the salt profile of soils during the growing season showed that the content of water-soluble salts (in % per 100 g of soil) in the horizons from September to May changed in the range from -1.42 to +0.36. At different periods of observations, both unidirectional changes  in the salt content and multidirectional changes were observed in the same soil horizons. In May, the upper horizons of all soils, including virgin soils, up to a depth of 30 cm were unsalted, they remained in the same category of salinity by September. In the profile of virgin soils, salinization began from a depth of 30-40 cm and intensified downwards, reaching values of strong salinization in the horizon of 70-100 cm (1.1-2%). By the end of the growing season, the salt content in these horizons decreased to an average (0.5-1%). In soils that had previously experienced forest reclamation, the lower horizons that were slightly saline in May (80-100 cm) moved to the category of non-saline by autumn. In previously reclaimed soils under the former arable land, on the contrary, previously unsalted lower horizons have moved into the category of slightly saline. The magnitude of the change in salinity of soil horizons has a high tightness of connection (r=0.89) with the chlorine ion.

The vegetation cover is relatively sparse; the total projective coverage ranges from 35% to 73%. The average values from May to June varied from 43% to 52% and by September decreased to 47%. Throughout the year, the communities are dominated by bulbous bluegrass (Poa bulbosa) and Lerch’s wormwood (Artemisia lerchiana). Chamomile (Tanacetum achilleifolium) is present in all areas, and in some, including virgin lands, acts as a codominant. In May, the volosnets (Leymus ramosus) aspect, in June and in September – annuals Anisantha tectorum and Atriplex tatarica, respectively. The aboveground phytomass of most plant communities increases from spring to autumn from 4-5 c/ha to 10-25 c/ha. In some areas, mainly previously forested and some virgin, the maximum values were reached at the end of June and decreased by autumn due to a significant decrease in the phytomass of perennial cereals. Plant communities by species composition and dominance during the entire growing season Artemisia lerchiana and Poa bulbosa should be attributed to the pasture variant of zonal semi-shrubby-tyrsikov (Stipa sareptana) plant communities characteristic of the desolate steppe on chestnut unsalted and slightly saline soils.

The novelty of this study is associated with new quantitative data on changes in the characteristics of the main components of the ecosystems of the desolate steppes during the vegetation period.

Keywords: Caspian lowland, virgin salt flats, land reclamation, irrigated afforestation with irrigation, irrigated arable land, hydrothermal conditions, vegetation period, salinization-desalinization of soils, species richness, plant communities, aboveground phytomass.

Financing. The work was carried out within the the State Task of the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, topic No. FMWZ-2022-0002,f «Research of geoecological processes in hydrological systems of land, formation of surface and groundwater quality, problems of water resources management and water use in conditions of climate change and anthropogenic impacts».

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-69-83

EDN: JUCRSV

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 84-90

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UDC 598.279.23:574.91:59.084

WINTER DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SPOTTED EAGLES (CLANGA CLANGA) THAT WERE TAGGED WITH GPS-GSM TRACKERS IN EUROPEAN RUSSIA

© 2022.   A.V. Sharikov*, A.S. Pedenko*, D.A. Zotov*, E.I. Tobolova**, A.L. Mishchenko***, V.N. Melnikov****, O.S. Grinchenko**

*Moscow State Pedagogical University, 6, Building 2, Kibalchicha Str., Moscow, 129164, Russia. E-mail: avsharikov@ya.ru

**Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Gubkina Str., Moscow, 119333, Russia. E-mail: olga_grinchenko@mail.ru

***A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 33, Leninskiy Avenue, Moscow, 119071, Russia. E-mail: almovs@mail.ru

****Ivanovo State University, 39, Ermaka Str., Ivanovo, 153025, Russia. E-mail: ivanovobirds@mail.ru

Received March 25, 2022. After revision March 30, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

Using the GPS-GSM trackers, we collected the data on the wintering routs of 4 young greater spotted eagles (Clanga clanga). They were tagged with rings and trackers in the central part of European Russia, then migrated to wintering grounds of the Middle East (Israel, northern Egypt, Saudi Arabia), southeastern Africa (Sudan and South Sudan), and southern Russia (Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai). Their arrival dates varied significantly, the average being the 27th of October (±22 days), while their departure took place almost simultaneous, roughly on the 24thof March (±3 days). We determined that, unlike the western populations of birds, such as Polish, Baltic and Belarusian ones, these spotted eagles leave their wintering grounds later.

The results of this research showed an uneven distribution of spotted eagles throughout their wintering areas. Most of the time they kept to their favorite places of natural and anthropogenic humid habitats. During the entire wintering period, the eagles used about 2 to 4 key areas, moving between them periodically and rarely leaving their boundaries.

Keywords: spotted eagle, Clanga clanga, wintering grounds, GPS-GSM telemetry, Central Russia.

Acknowledgments. The authors thank NABU International for their support of the BirdRussia work in Central Russia. We thank M.V. Korepov for his training and help in the bird tracker-tagging. We thank Kordian Bartoszuk for providing us with hardware and software for bird tracking and for his valuable advices; D.A. Karvovsky, M.N. Ivanov, O.A. Zubkova and E.A. Akhatov, as well as students and postgraduates of the Moscow State Pedagogical University for their active participation in our research.

Funding. This work was carried out within the State Task No. 0089-2021-0010 of the Moscow State Pedagogical University “Fundamental Problems of Wildlife Protection and Rational Use of Bioresources”, and No. FMWZ-2022-0002 of the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Research of Geoecological Processes in Hydrological Land Systems, Formation of the Surface and Ground Waters Quality, Management Problems of Water Resources and Water Use under the Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts”.

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-84-90

EDN: NGWZQD

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 91-96

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UDC 595. 42 (235.132)

BIODIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIBATID MITES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF THE KOPETDAG

© 2022.   P.R. Khydyrov

  1. Seidi Turkmen State Pedagogical Institute

7, Shabende Str., Turkmenabat, 746100, Turkmenistan. E-mail: dolychocybe@mail.ru

Received January 1, 2022. After revision March 2, 2022. Accepted March 23, 2022.

The results of studies on the biodiversity and ecology of mites inhabiting the South-West of the Kopetdag are presented. In particular, 41 species of oribatid mites have been identified in the soil, litter under trees and shrubs, as well as in anthills and holes of rodents, including 3 new species for the fauna of Turkmenistan.

The significance of these mites in the decomposition of plant residues and in soil-forming processes is shown. In the mountains the oribatid mites are capable of life from the second half of March to the end of November. It was found that from mid-May to October, the number of mites in the deserts and steppes reaches its peak of individuals 25-30 ekz./. The lowest indices of the number of oribatid mites were recorded in June specimens 2-7 ekz./ this is explained by the lack of moisture and food resources in the soil. The observations revealed the optimal value of moisture content 5-25% and soil temperature +3 — +25 0C   for the development of mites.

Our research has revealed, for the first time, the breeding centers of mites in anthills. Two ecological groups of myrmecophilic mites have been identified: detritus-phages and zoonecrophages. Myrmecophilic detritus phages were assigned to 14 species of mites that were found in the nests of ants feeding on the seeds of herbaceous plants. The group of myrmecophilic zoonecrophages includes 6 species of mites. They are found in the nests of ants that feed on the corpses of insects.

We examined also the data on the finding of oribatid mites in the holes of rodents. The identification of nidicolous species of oribatid mites is considered as a result of their adaptation to arid habitat conditions.

Keywords: mite, soil, biodiversity, mountain, ecology, ant, rodent.

Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the State assignment of the Department of Biology of the S. Seidi Turkmen State Pedagogical Institute «Biodiversity of soil mites of various systematic groups (Acari: Sarcoptiformes, Trombidiformes) and their ecology» (No. 10.00.2313).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-91-96

EDN: QDGLRC

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 97-106

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UDC 550.4; 551.8 (925.22)

USE OF HOLOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE SOUTH-EAST ROSTOV REGION TO ESTABLISH THE ANCIENT ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITY IN STEPPE REGIONS

© 2022.   I.A. Idrisov*, N.I. Shishlina**, ***

*Institute of Geology of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 75, M. Yaragskogo Str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367000, Russia. E-mail: idris_gun@mail.ru

**State Historical Museum, 1, Krasnaya Square, Moscow, 109012, Russia. E-mail: nshishlina@mail.ru

***Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography named after Peter the Great of the Russia, Academy of Sciences, 3, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russia

Received February 25, 2022. After revision April 7, 2022. Accepted April 8, 2022.

Study of the beam system of the rivers Sal and  Don in the south-east of the Rostov region of Russia allowed us to establish a significant area of distribution and a wide variety of Holocene deposits. They accumulated depending on the local features of various sites, the features of exogenous processes, landforms, the nature of soil-forming rocks and other factors. As a result of the study, Holocene deposits in negative relief forms (in the floodplain and the first floodplain terrace) formed by alluvial and deluvial processes with a certain role of

aeolian processes were identified; Holocene sediments of the second floodplain terrace of the end of the Khvalynsky stage of the Caspian Sea and the Novoevksinsky stage of the Black Sea; the intermediate form is Holocene sediments in saucer-shaped depressions. The history of accumulation of deposits on negative and positive relief elements is due to the presence of contrasting stages of environmental changes. The revealed Holocene deposits of different ages were confined to archaeological artifacts that record short-term habitats of mobile cattle breeders of different eras. They were found near identified Holocene deposits. This makes it possible to identify and further study the «invisible» sites of ancient man and obtain additional data on the anthropogenic impact on steppe resource areas in antiquity.

Keywords: paleogeography, Holocene, beam, soil, steppe, River Don.

Financing. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 21-18-00026 «Resources and humans in the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages: the dynamics of the use of arid regions of southern Russia» (research supervisor N.I. Shishlin).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-97-106

EDN: TNFEWY

12.

АРИДНЫЕ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ, 2022, том 28, № 3 (92), с. 107-115

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UDC 577.115.3+577.359

PECULIARITIES OF THE ANNUAL AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF THE SALINE LAKES LOCATED IN ARID CLIMATE IN CRIMEA

© 2022.   I.I. Rudneva*, V.G. Shaida**, А.V. Scherba***

*Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2, Kapitanskaya Str., Sevastopol, 229011, Russia. E-mail: svg-41@mail.ru

**Ecoservice-A LLC, 17А, Verkhnyaya Krasnoselskaya Str., Moscow, 107140, Russia

***Sevstar LLC, 74a, Khrustaleva Str., Sevastopol, 299011, Russia

Received December 14, 2021. Revised March 1, 2022. Accepted April 1, 2022.

On Crimea peninsula there are several unique lakes of different genesis, which characterize high quality recreational and balneological properties. These water bodies are impacted for anthropogenic activities, caused negative consequences for the  total ecosystem, including the lost of biological and hydromineralogical resources. At several cases, the water bodies located not far from each other greatly differ because of anthropogenic activity. For instance, Moinaky Lake is located at the west part of the Eupatoria city (Crimea), at present it is divided by the sand barrier in two parts namely Moinaky 1 (big part) and Moinaky 2 (small part). The aim of the present work was to study several physical and chemical characteristics of the water ( temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, oxygen  content) in both basins and the population state of brine shrimp Artemia salina at the period of 2018-2020. We studied the hydrochemical parameters of the water namely temperature, рН, oxygen concentration, salinity and Eh) monthly in both water bodies, divided by sand barrier. Seasonal dynamics of the tested parameters was characterized by the increase of salinity and Eh in summer period, accompanied with the increasing temperature of the air and water caused high insolation. Simultaneously, the concentration of the oxygen dropped and the insignificant decrease of pH was observed. The differences between the tested processes in both water bodies were shown, which were more clearly in Moinaky 2 as compared with Moinaky 1. Artemia cysts were found in both basins, while nauplia and adults were found only in Moinaky 2 at autumn and winter 2020, after dry period and restoration of the hydrological regime.

Keywords: hypersaline lakes, Crimea Peninsula, pH, Eh, salinity, oxygen content.

Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the state assignment of the Moscow Hydrophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 0555-2021-0004 «Fundamental research of oceanological processes that determine the state and evolution of the marine environment under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, based on observation and modeling methods» (cipher «Oceanological processes»).

DOI: 10.24412/1993-3916-2022-3-107-115

EDN: TVGBJY