Zalibekov Z.G., Mamaev S.A., BiarslanovA.B., Magomedov R.A., Asgerov D.B., Galimov W.M. ON THE USE OF FRESH GROUNDWATER IN ARID REGIONS OF THE WORLD IN THE FIGHT AGAINST DESERTIFICATION // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 3-12. | PDF
The theoretical basis and principles of the use of fresh groundwater (CLP) and their role in combating desertification and in developing the biological potential of drylands have been developed. Advantages of CLP in comparison with surface irrigation waters are revealed: protection from pollution, evaporation, protection of natural reserves and their natural renewability. The areas of arid lands on the continents, differences in the depth of CLP and the parameters of the recommended type of drip irrigation on the example of one of the arid regions of the Tersko-Kumsky artesian lowland are given. Natural renewal and occurrence close in comparison with conditions of Equatorial Africa to a surface of CLP in Delta-alluvial plains of Eurasia is shown.
Idarmachev S.G., Cherkashin V.I., Musaev M.A., Dormachev A.S. ON THE SEISMICITY OF THE ARID ZONE OF NORTH-EASTERN CAUCASUS // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 13-17. | PDF
For the first time the connection of distribution of epicenters of strong earthquakes with arid zones in the North-East Caucasus is investigated. The Northern part of the arid zone, located on the territory of the Scythian-Turan platform, is characterized by non-seismicity, earthquakes are located to the south of the border of the arid zone. The narrow part of the coastal arid zone coincides with the location of deep faults: the Middle and Coastal, tectonic activity of which is characterized by the occurrence of foci of strong earthquakes.
Golovanov M., Abramova L. M. THE CHALK HILLS OF THE ORENBURG REGION IS A UNIQUE HABITAT OF RARE PLANTS AND PLANT COMMUNITIES // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 18-26. | PDF
In the period from 2014 to 2017, floristic, geobotanical and population-biological studies were conducted on 9 Cretaceous elevations of the steppe zone of the Orenburg region, characterized by high specificity and the proportion of rare and endemic species. Floristic studies were carried out by a widespread route method. Assessment of environmental significance is given by 8 indicators adopted in phytocenotic works (floristic and phytocenotic significance, distribution, naturalness, reduction of area, recoverability, category of protection, coverage of protection). 40 species listed in the Red Data Books of different ranks and 15 endemics were found on the studied massifs. The greatest number of rare species of plants marked for Verhnesaldinsky and Trinity Cretaceous mountains (26 species), which are the largest in size and slightly disturbed Cretaceous reference arrays region. High concentration of rare species of plants occurs in saltwort-sagebrush (24) and desert-Agropyron communities (25 species). When assessing the environmental significance by the integral index the higher scores of “category of protection” received communities with dominants: Anabasis,Anthemis and Nanophyton. Assessment of the state of populations of 6 rare plant species on the studied Cretaceous massifs showed that with increasing anthropogenic load there is a decrease in the vitality of populations. The necessity of protection of four unprotected today chalk hills and chalk outputs in the Orenburg region is mentioned.
Keywords: Orenburg region, Cretaceous uplands, rare and endemic species.
Shomurodov H.F., Adilov B.A. THE CURRENT STATE OF THE VEGETATION OF VOZROZHDENIYA ISLAND, UZBEKISTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 27-34. | PDF
The preliminary floristic composition of vascular plants of Vozrojdeniya Island (an enclave of the Aral sea) within its limits in the Karakalpak part (Uzbekistan), numbering 123 species from 90 genera and 31 families, is established. In terms of species richness, the spectrum of the leading families is headed by Chenopodiaceae Vent., Asteraceae Dumort., Fabaceae Lindl. and Poaceae Barnhart families. Similarities (for example communities of Anabasis salsa and Artemisia terrae-albae) and distinctive features (for example, Salsola arbusculiformis, not acting as dominants and the lack of vegetation complexes consisting of Anabasis salsa,Artemisia terrae-albae and Salsola arbuscula) vegetation of the island with Ustyurt. On the other hand, large areas of the island are occupied by the communities of Salsola orientalis and Haloxylon aphyllum, resembling separate ecotopes of Kyzylkum. The predominance of the Artemisia terrae-albae formation in some parts of the island is associated with low anthropogenic impact due to the isolation of the island from the mainland for a long time.
Keywords: flora, vegetation, Vozrojdeniye island, Ustyurt plateau, Kyzylkum, endemics.
Asadulaev Z.M., Anatov D.M. SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF POPULATION OF PRUNUS ARMENIACA L. IN THE ARID WOODLANDS OF THE INTRAMOUNTAIN DAGESTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 35-42. | PDF
The spatial structure of coenopopulations of Prunus armeniaca L. depending on the steepness and exposure of the slopes was studied in the Intramountain Dagestan at three high-altitude levels. The greatest density of apricot massifs are on the gentle slopes of the Northern exposures and in areas adjacent to the river valleys. The density of the apricot trees (r=-0.45), and a variety of other woody species (r=-0.91) decrease on the southern slopes compared to the northern slopes as they are more eroded and steep, that leads to the formation of monodominant apricot forests. With increasing density and joint growth with other tree species, the apricot crown acquires a pyramidal shape, and at low density a hemispherical shape.
Keywords:Prunus armeniaca L., Intramountain Dagestan, arid woodlands, cenopopulations, spatial structure, density, height above sea level, steepness of slopes, Shapiro-Wilk and Chi-square match criteria.
Shamsutdinova E.Z., Shamsutdinov N.Z., Ibrahimov I.O., Nicolin V.N., Shamsutdinov Z.S. BLACK SAXAUL BELTS FOR PASTURE PROTECTION IN THE CENTRAL ASIAN DESERT: ENVIRONMENTAL AND PRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 43-51. | PDF
Under the conditions of the southern Central Asian deserts, pasture protection belts formed by black saxaul significantly increase the relative humidity, change the temperature regime of air and soil, reduce wind speed, delay snow and protect the soil from drying. As a result, more favorable hydrothermal conditions are created for the growth and development of natural wormwood-ephemeral vegetation in the wood belt and adjacent areas of pastures. The species composition of plants in black saxaul belts becomes more varied, the density of ephemeral forbs higher than on open pasture. Production function of black saxaul belts consists of two components: production of forage mass of the black saxaul itself and natural production of wormwood-ephemeric pastures in the zone of positive environmental impact of black saxaul belts. It is advisable to use the black-saxaul pasture belts as fodder grounds twice during a year: during spring sheep are grazing on ephemera, repeatedly in the autumn-winter period – on the black saxaul (assimilation shoots and seeds).
Keywords: black saxaul, black saxaul belts, environmental and production function, the Central Asian desert.
Gasanov N., Azarova T.A., Gadzhiyev K.M., Bashirov R.R., Akhmedova Z.N., Abdulayeva A.S., Salikhov Sh.K. CONCENTRATION, TRANSLOCATION AND PHOSPHOROUS BALANCE IN GRASSLAND SEMI-DESERT LANDSCAPES THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 52-58. | PDF
The results of studies on the accumulation and translocation of phytomass by blocks of plant matter, concentration, reserves and phosphorus balance are presented. The studies were carried out in grass ecosystems on light chestnut and meadow chestnut soils and saline typical, representing a significant part of the North-Western Caspian sea.
Bahmulaeva Z.K.,Vlasov O.K., Magadova S.A., Gasanov R.Z. ON THE ROLE OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF GRAPE RESOURCES IN ARID REGIONS // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 59-63. | PDF
The results of the study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the components of polyphenolic complex of the introduced varieties Rkatsiteli and Moldova of grapes, growing in arid conditions of the North-Western part of the plain zone of Dagestan, used as a model sample typical for the southern regions of Russia. The content of the complex of phenolic compounds, vitamins, reductions in grapes and products of its processing was determined. The antioxidant activity of individual structural elements of the bunch is evaluated: pulp, skin, seeds and ridges. The obtained data were used in the development of technological modes of processing of the studied varieties for the preparation of wines and wine materials.
Keywords: grape, Rkatsiteli, Moldova, wine, polyphenols, antioxidants, plain, the foothills, the concentration of the organoleptic characteristic, dry conditions.
Bazhenov Yu.A. STATUS OF THE POPULATIONS OF TARBAGAN (MARMOTA SIBIRICA RADDE, 1862) IN THE DAURIAN RESERVE AND THE FEDERAL NATURE RESERVE “DZEREN VALLEY” // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 64-69. | PDF
From 2010 to 2017 a field study of the location and number of tarbagan (Mongolian marmot) on the border with Mongolia and China of the TRANS-Baikal region (Russia) was conducted. The territory under consideration is part of the Federal specially protected areas: the Daurian reserve and the dzeren Valley reserve. It is shown that by 2017 the number of tarbagan in this area reached more than 2000 families. The best recovery is in those areas where the population density of tarbagan has historically been the highest (Nerchinsky ridge near the border with Mongolia). Engineering and technical facilities at the border and a special border regime favored the preservation of the original settlements of marmots. Migration of marmots from Mongolia has ceased to play an important role in maintaining the border populations of marmots on the considered section of the border of Russia and Mongolia.
Keywords: Mongolian marmot, Transbaikalia, Red Data Book, population recovery.
Magomedova G.M.H.-M., Aliev Yu.M., Mammaev A.T., Panaskina E.V., Murtuzov A.V. ABOUT THE CHANGE OF THE OPTICAL PARAMETERS OF THE PLANTS ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF SALINITY OF SOILS IN DRYLANDS // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 2 (79). P. 70-75. | PDF
The bioindication of the soil«plant system in North Dagestan by means of optical parameters of plants according to ecological and physiological indicator features was done. High soil salinity and manifestation of signs of aridization indicates an urgent need for bioindication of soils. Plants-indicators were found, according to the fluorescent reaction of which it is possible to detect and diagnose the signs of soil degradation in a timely manner.