Teymurov S.A., Imashova S.N., Ramazanov A.V. INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATION OF CHESTNUT AND MEADOW-CHESTNUT SOILS ON THEIR AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN THE TERSKO-SULAK PLAIN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 89-95.
The data of studying the physical properties of chestnut and meadow-chestnut soils are considered. The dependence of the density of the studied soils on both the size of aggregates and the features of the soil formation process is shown. In each particular case, this dependence is closely related to the genesis of soils and the peculiarities of their agricultural use. When considering the porosity of aggregates, estimated by the percentage of fractions, it is seen that the main share of interaggregate porosity in the studied soils is accounted for by large aggregates. The results of the obtained studies can be extrapolated to other areas of the soil cover of the studied area.
Funding. This work was carried out within the state assignment No. 0733-2015-0002 “To Develop Methods of Fertilizers Usage (Green Manure, Straw, Manure) to Increase Soil Fertility and Corn Yield for its Grain and Grain Sorghum under the Irrigation of the Terek-Sulak Subprovince”.
Abdullabekova D.A., Magomedova E.S., Magomedov G.G., Kachalkin A.V. YEAST AS AN ELEMENT OF SOIL BIODIVERSITY AMPELOCENOSIS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARID CLIMATE // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 96-102.
The results of the study of the light chestnut soil of ampelocenosis located in the zone of the semi-desert-steppe regime with a low hydrothermal coefficient are presented. Analysis of the chemical composition revealed that the soil is non-saline, saturated with bases and has a deficiency of certain plant nutrients. The study of the taxonomic composition of yeast, which can act as a model group of microorganisms in the study of soil-microbiological processes, has shown the ability of this soil to play the role of a biological reservoir for storage and distribution in the natural cycle of various physiological groups of yeast. The yeast complex included 11 species: 2 – basidiomycetes, 9 –ascomycetes, among which the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans and Lachancea thermotolerans significantly dominated. The yeast was isolated in a direct and cumulative manner; the species identification of pure cultures was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA region. The accumulation of allochthonous yeasts, as well as other groups of microorganisms, affecting the biodiversity of the ampelocenosis soil, expands the potential for the participation of mycobiota in soil processes.
Funding. This work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant No. 12-04-01222 “Study of the yeast biological diversity in connection with altitudinal-zonal differentiation (on the example of the plain, piedmont and mountainous territories of Dagestan)”, and the Russian Science Foundation, Grant No. 19-74-10002 «Endophytic Yeast of Crops: Monitoring of its Spread and Role in Plant Protection».
Rybka K.Y., Shchegolkova N.M. PERFORMANCE FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN ARID AREAS // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 103-110.
The article discusses the features of wastewater treatment in arid regions using constructed wetlands (CWs) – shallow artificial streams, planted with higher aquatic vegetation. It is known that due to the increased temperature, the efficiency of arid CWs is higher in some parameters compared to similar treatment systems in other climatic zones. However, arid wetlands have a number of features that have not yet been covered in the scientific literature. In this article, arid CWs are considered from two positions – from the point of view of the water budget of the system and the energy balance. It is shown that evapotranspiration becomes the main expenditure item of the water balance of CWs under arid conditions, which in some cases accounts for up to 70% of the total water loss in wetlands. At the same time, evapotranspiration is the main cooling mechanism for arid CWs. In conclusion, recommendations are given for the design of constructed wetlands in areas with a hot dry climate, aimed primarily at saving water resources. These include: the use of subsurface wetlands with vertical flow and artificial aeration, planting plants with minimal transpiration and the use of submerged macrophytes, planting trees around the perimeter of a wetland for shading and reducing wind speed, etc.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, arid constructed wetlands, arid areas, wetland water budget, wetland energy balance.
Funding. This work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Project No. 18-29-25027 “Influence of Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities on the Purification Efficiency of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Environments in Various Treatment Facilities”, Theme No. 0147-2019-0004 (state registration No. АААА-А19-119040990079-3) “ Development of Scientific and Technological Basis for Integrated Water Resources Management and Protection of Water Bodies on the Territory of the Russian Federation” within the state assignment of Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Magomedov R.A. GEOECOLOGICAL VALUE OF BLOCK POTENTIAL EASTERN CAUCASUS IN A DRY CLIMATE // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 3 (88). P. 111-119 | PDF
The geodynamic potential of the blocks of the north-eastern segment of the Eastern Caucasus under the conditions of land ecosystems settling down is estimated and its geoecological significance is shown. Potential waiting areas for possible foci of strong earthquakes that can negatively affect the environmental safety in the region are identified. The conducted research is a continuation of the work on the assessment of the geoecological situation that develops under the influence of potential catastrophic geological processes of a natural nature in the region that is subject to sedimentation and aridization.
Keywords: geodynamic potential, geoecology, safety, seismotectonics, zone of possible earthquake foci, quasi-homogeneous blocks.
Funding. This work was carried out within the state assignment No. АААА-А17-117021310201-9 «Study of catastrophic Geological Processes of Natural and Technogenic Origin in the Territory of the Eastern Caucasus».