Jinyan L. CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIATIONS IN ECOLOGICAL WATER REQUIREMENT OF FORESTLANDS AND GRASSLANDS IN THE ARID REGION IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN NINGXIA // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 3-15. | PDF
Reasonable development of vegetation cover is an important measure to improve ecological environment in arid regions, so research on ecological water requirement of vegetation has become a hot issue in the domain of ecology and hydrology. This study chose 8 counties in central and southern Ningxia province from north to south, which are located in the arid region of northwest China, as research object to estimate the potential evapotranspiration and ecological water requirement of the local vegetation based on meteorological data, vegetation distribution data, water resources condition data and so on. This effort can help us to understand and master the spatial and temporal distribution rules of ecological water requirement, and provides a basis for the planning and construction of forest-grass vegetation in the region. Firstly, Thornthwaite model and Penman-Monteith model were used to calculate the ecological water requirement quota, and the calculation results obtained by the models were compared, showing that results obtained by Penman-Monteith model were more rational because the model integrates all sorts of meteorological factors and the geographical position factor. At the same time, Jensen formula and the regional soil characteristic curve were used to determine soil moisture correction coefficient, for the calculation of ecological water requirement. Secondly, estimate potential evapotranspiration of regional vegetation and ecological water requirement of precipitation-consumptive vegetation were estimated from month to month. On this basis, we analyzed spatial and temporal variation characteristics of potential evapotranspiration. The results show that potential evapotranspiration was on an increasing trend month by month from January to July, and on a decreasing trend from August to December. As for spatial distribution, potential evapotranspiration increased gradually from the south to the north. Spatial variation of balance law between rainfall and ecological water requirement for vegetation was analyzed, and the results show that ecological water shortage in the central region was more serious than that in the southern region, and the most serious water shortage was found in Yanchi which is the northernmost county in the central arid region. On the contrary, ecological water requirement of forestlands was in a state of surplus throughout the growing season in Jingyuan County which is located in the southernmost. Spatial and temporal variation of relationship between precipitation-consumptive ecological water requirement and water resources was discussed further more. The results show that there is still adequate room for the regional vegetation construction in Yanchi, Tongxin, and Haiyuan in the central arid region and relatively dry areas such as Yuanzhou, Xiji, Pengyang in southern mountainous area, and the room for increasing vegetation coverage is bigger in Longde and Jingyuan which are relatively abundant in rainfall and located in the southern mountainous area.
Keywords: ecological water requirement, water resource, rainfall resource, forestland, grassland, Central and Southern Ningxia.
Kuzmina Zh.V., Shinkarenko S.S., Solodovnikov D.A. MAIN DYNAMICS TRENDS OF THE FLOODPLAIN ECOSYSTEMS AND LANDSCAPES OF THE LOWER SYR DARYA IN THE CURRENTLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENT // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 16-29. | PDF
The Aral Sea catastrophe almost destroyed the sea. The construction of Kokaral Dam in 2005 made it possible to save the northern part of the Aral Sea, also called Small Aral. Due to the natural (climatic) and anthropogenic reasons in the early XXI century, the Syr Darya river flow grew, its hydraulic regime changed, the spring and summer floods decreased, and the winter spillways increased. These changes affect the dynamics of the floodplain ecosystems and landscapes. In this article we tried to make a complex evaluation of the current trends in those dynamics in the changing environment. The research was made on the basis of the field materials and data of the remote sensing by the Sentinel 2 satellite, as well as climatic and hydraulic data. The analysis of laboratory and field materials was carried out according to the method of evaluation of ecosystems and landscapes transformations under the natural and hydraulic disturbance; the method was created by Zh.V. Kuzmina and S.E. Treshkin. We found out that the main trends for the second floodplain level was hydromorphic forming of salt marshes; for the in-between river bed depressions of river delta it was the gradual decrease of ground water level, while the soil salinity was gradually increasing in the depths and was insignificant on the ground surface; for the third floodplain level and terrace above the floodplain it was the end of the floodplain regime for the researched territory, without increasing salinity of soils; for the depressions of the first and second levels it was the replacement of the perennial and typical grass canopy with annual weeds of some species, due to the death of grass during winter frost and dampness caused by winter spillways.
Keywords: Syr Darya, spring and summer floods, winter spillways, floodplain, ground water level, floodplain ecosystems and landscapes, halophyte vegetation, soil salinity.
Bocharnikov M.V., Petrushina M.N., Suslova E.G. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SUB-MEDITERRANEAN FORESTS AND SPARSE FORESTS BELT VEGETATION AND LANDSCAPES (ABRAU PENINSULA, NORTH-WEST CAUCASUS) // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 30-41. | PDF
The article is related to the patterns of landscapes and vegetation cover spatial organization on the Abrau peninsula within the “Utrish” natural reserve and the adjacent territory, which are expressed through the landscape structure of the mountain territory. Ecological and topological profiling and large-scale mapping of vegetation and landscapes made it possible to assess the spatial diversity of unique sub-Mediterranean ecosystems according to geological and geomorphological conditions, including the absolute heights, exposure and steepness of the slopes, climate features and the influence of the sea. The specificity of environmental conditions at different altitudes is reflected in the structure of phytocoenotic diversity, which causes the formation of two altitudinal sub-belts within the seaside belt, as well as the change in the typological composition of forest, sparse forest and shrub communities at different levels of phytocatena.
Grigoryevskaya A.Ya., Devyatova T.A., Gorbunova Yu.S., Sorokina N.A. PHYTO-DIVERSITY CONGITION OF PYROGENIC FORMATIONS OF USMANSKY FOREST IN VORONEZH REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 42-51. | PDF
We present the results of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula formations (N 51° 48’ 30.1’’, E 39° 23’ 58.4’’) research made in 2015-2016 after the forest fire of 2010. The description of these formations has been started in 2012. The methods of the plant community structure analysis are important for cognition of their yearly ecological condition and detecting of plants sustainability to the pyrogenic factor. On the example of the background and pyrogenic associations of these formations we provide the data on the beginning of recovery of the phytocenosis structure and flora, dominants changes in the layers, projective cover increase and forest phytocenosis forming. We registered the decrease of species diversity and projective cover for weeds. The present list of flora has 84 species of 75 genera, 33 families and 2 divisions: Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. The leading families are Poaceae with 12 species (14.1%), Asteraceae with 8 species (9.4%), and Fabaceae with 6 species (7%). The small spectrum of these leading families proves the high pyrogenic disturbance of the flora. The dominance of the rhizome plants (42 species or 44.6%) and small amount of sod grasses (4 species or 4.8%) indicate the advantage of the forest phytocenotic group. The xerophytic group (15 species or 7.9%) indicates the heightened illumination and lowered moisturizing of the formations after the fire. We revealed 8 geo-elements and 14 areas. European geo-element with 53 species (63.1%) and 12 areas types is the dominant.
Keywords: flora, formation, pyrogenic and background phytocenosis, association.
Ogureeva G.N., Zhargalsaikhan L., Karimova T.Yu., Miklyaeva I.M. CHANGES OF BOTANICAL DIVERSITY OF MIXED AND SOD GRASS STEPPES OF EASTERN MONGOLIA IN 11 YEARS (2008-2018) // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 52-60. | PDF
We analyzed the dynamics of botanical diversity of mixed and sod grass plain steppes over 11 years from 2008 to 2018, using the materials of the bio-monitoring of vegetation cover on the Tumentsogt station, Eastern Mongolia. We analyzed the relations between the main parameters of plant communities (their species composition, richness and saturation, height and abundance, grass canopy density) and meteorological conditions (heat and water availability, quantity and distribution of precipitation during vegetation period).
Koroleva E.G., Dikareva T.V., Dikarev V.A. EVALUATION OF THE NATURALLY CAUSED HAZRADS IN THE «ILE-BALKHASH» NATURE RESERVE, KAZAKHSTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 61-70. | PDF
In this article we evaluate medically, ecologically and biogeographically the potential naturally caused hazards in the territory of the “Ile-Balkhash” nature reserve of the Republic of Kazakhstan, considering the tourist activities, planned for this reserve. The analysis of the influence factors was carried out for the allergenic and poisonous plants, as well as for the natural niduses. The medical-geographical risk is in the functioning of 5 natural niduses of nosological entities in the reserve’s territory; tularemia and brucellosis have the highest sickness rate among people throughout the region. The presence of vector-mammals and growth of many poisonous and allergenic plants in those territories prove the danger and suppose the necessity of regular medical-ecological monitoring. The present methodological evaluation scheme of such naturally caused hazards can be applied for other arid regions as well.
Vlasenko M.V., Kulik A.K., Salugin A.N. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION AND PRODUCTIVITY LOSSES OF ARID PASTURES ECOSYSTEMS OF SARPINSKY LOWLAND // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 71-81. | PDF
We monitored the pastures ecosystems of the semi-arid zone in Sarpinsky Lowland of Russia and registered some local problems. The experimental data was collected through 1999-2017. It is stated that the present agro-landscape conditions are critical. The degraded pastures account for more than 600 thousands ha (34%), more than the half of which are highly degraded. 35-40%, of the total area of the regional forage grounds (about 1870 thousands ha) are moderately overgrazed, 30-40% are highly overgrazed, and 15-20% are excluded from the agricultural management and have turned into broken sands and abandoned territories. The digression is severely high on the winter (year-round) pastures. The area of open and drift sands has increased to 20-30%. In some districts the pressure on the pastures exceeds the optimal index 5-7 times. Almost all pastures need resting periods and agricultural restoration. Desertification (salinity, erosion and deflation) is a severe problem of the region. As the result of it the productivity loss of the pastures is 1052.7 thousands hwt of feed-units per year. Agroforestry measures have a significant value for preventing of soil erosion and deflation and are considered to be the many-functional, long-term protection factor. A map of forest conditions was composed to achieve the maximal ecological- and economical result of agroforestation; it was based on the agroforestry classification which represents the natural characteristics of the territory and features of its agroforestry developing
Ubugunova В.I., Gunin P.D., Ubugunov V.L., Aleskerova E.N., Bazha S.N., Ayushina T.A. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMUS HORIZONS OF CRYO-ARID SOILS IN THE BARGUZIN VALLEY // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 82-91. | PDF
We studied various types of arid soils, forming under the influence of extra continental climate on the northern border of Central Asian steppes distribution. In this article we present the results of color characterization and humus condition of the surface horizons of steppe soils and soils of forest and steppe connection zone. Using Munsell color system and color spectrum of CIE–L*a*b* system, we determined that cryo-humus accumulation prevails in steppe ecosystems soils and light-humus connection zone. The correlation between labile and bio-inert fractions of humus compounds can be used as a diagnostic parameter. We made a cluster analysis of humus horizons, using 25 indices. The first cluster combines steppe soils with cryo-humus accumulation, the second cluster combines soils with light-humus accumulation. Soils with AK–BCA–Cca profile were classified as cryo-humus soils. The achieved data can be used as a basis to clarify the classification of cryo-arid soils.
Keywords: soil, humus, accumulation, color characteristics, fraction composition.
Bednaruk S.E., Dilman N.A., Mastryukova A.V., Chukanov V.V. THE REDUCTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING FLIES POPULATION IN VOLGOGRAD DURING FIFA WORLD CUP 2018 AS A SPECIAL TASK OF THE COMPLEX USE OF WATER RESERVOIRS CASCADE RECOURSES // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 92-99. | PDF
Every year, mass emerge of blood-sucking midges is observed at the territory of Volgograd and Astrakhan regions from the end of May till July. The midges show annoying behavior and their bites are very painful and annoying for humans and animals as well. In the second part of June, 2018 games of the FIFA World Cup should have been played in Volgograd. The threat of mass emerge of midges could adversely affect sanitary and epidemiological situation at the city and cause a violation of the governmental guarantees given to FIFA. It was suggested that managing of water releases through the Volgograd dam would be one of the possible measures to reduce a risk of midges emerge while the World Cup games. This suggestion was made according to available data on the dependence of a population and emerge time of midges on the characteristics of Lower Volga spring flood (water releases volume, maximum levels and intensity of water levels decline). Implementation of such water releases management was difficult and complex problem, as it should be reconciled with the water regimes of upstream reservoirs. The demands of other water users both upstream and downstream also had to be met. Available water resources of Volga-Kama cascade and uncertainty of water inflow forecasts should be concerned.
Keywords: Lower Volga, Volga-Kama cascade, special-purpose spring water release, multipurpose management of water resources, blood-sucking midge, 2018 FIFA World Cup.