Kust G.S., Andreeva O.V., Lobkovskiy V.A. LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY – THE NEW GLOBAL CONCEPT AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE DRYLANDS RESEARCHING AT NATIONAL LEVEL // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 3-9. | PDF
The assessment based on the applying of the concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) and of the method for assessing LDN indicators for Russian drylands is presented for the first time. It is shown that the LDN is not reached wherever in the arid and semiarid regions in Russian Federation, since the proportion of land that is degraded over total land area in 2001-2015 is everywhere positive and ranges from 9 to 67%. The concept of “LDN index” is introduced for making convenient to compare and rank individual territories. An assessment of some arid regions of Russia according to this indicator is provided. The obtained preliminary results need to be validated and refined based on a comparison with the available national data collected by traditional methods.
Keywords: land degradation neutrality, desertification, drylands, land degradation.
Bezuglova O.S., Nazarenko O.G., Ilyinskaya I.N. DYNAMICS OF LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ROSTOV REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 10-15. | PDF
The Rostov region, located in the southeast of the European part of the Russian Federation, is characterized by a temperate continental climate with somewhat unstable humidity levels. Typical summers are dry and hot, while winters have relatively little snow and constant winds. Climatic and geomorphological features of the territory, as well as the high agricultural development of land resources determine the development of a number of deterioration processes. The purpose of the research was to make a comparative spatio-temporal assessment of degradation processes that contribute to the development of the desertification process in the Rostov region. The basis of the research was the analysis of literature and archival data in retrospect, the use of calculated natural and environmental indicators, differentiated study of soil types common for the region and the degree of natural humidity of the agrolandscape in accordance with the ecological stability and hydrothermal regime of the territory. It has been established that the climate aridization, agro-depletion, erosion development are typical for the Rostov Region. This allows for evaluation Rostov region as a territory with a risk of potential desertification.
Kulik K.N., Petrov V.I., Yuferev V.G., Tkachenko N.A., Shinkarenko S.S. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH-WESTERN PRECASPIAN REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 16-24. | PDF
An analysis of the desertification of the North-Western Precaspian region using geo-information technologies and aerospace data to identify changes in the area of hotspots of desertification showed that the area of degraded and deserted lands increases with the growth in the quantity of sheep and goats. With a relatively stable number of animals, the role of climatic factors increases, which leads to an increase in the speed and amplitude of changes in the area of hotspots of desertification, both in the direction of decrease, with sufficient moisture, and an increase in dry years. Landscape fires have a significant impact, which lead not only to a decrease in the projective cover, but also to the depletion of the species composition of vegetation. The study and mapping of the relief made it possible to establish spatially determined geomorphological features of the territory as a factor affecting local moisture, and, accordingly, on the stability of ecosystems and the possibility of phytomelioration.
Zolotov D.V., Chernykh D.V., Biryukov R.Yu., Pershin D.K., Malygina N.S., Gribko A.V. LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY IN ALTAI KRAI: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 25-33. | PDF
The article describes the existing climate trends for Western Siberia and Altai Krai; based on two global climate models, forecasts until 2030 were made. The dynamics of arable and forest-covered areas in Altai Krai under conditions of climate drying was analyzed using the results of remote sensing data processing and official statistics. The directions of situation development and measures to achieve land degradation neutrality including the optimization of environmental management, organization and reorganization of specially protected natural areas are considered.
Keywords: temperature and precipitation of the warm period, types of land cover, land categories, indicators of land degradation neutrality, arable lands, forests, specially protected natural areas.
Garmaev E.Zh., Ayurzhanaev A.A., Tsydypov B.Z., Alymbaeva Zh.B., Sodnomov B.V., Andreev S.G., Zharnikova M.A., Batomunkuev V.S., Mandakh N., Salikhov T.K., Tulohonov А.К. ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL – TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF ARID ECOSYSTEMS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 34-42. | PDF
Climate change and human activity on the territory of the Republic of Buryatia intensify the processes of desertification and land degradation. Zoning of the territory of Buryatia was carried out according to the aridity index using ENVIREM high spatial resolution climatic data. Based on the correlation analysis of the time series of the NDVI AVHRR vegetation index, meteorological series of the NCEP / NCAR reanalysis and field studies, a quantitative assessment of the long-term changes in vegetation cover in arid and humid zones was carried out. Maps of the spatial distribution of linear trends of NDVI and precipitation for 1982-2015 with the separation of wet (1982-1999) and dry periods (2000-2015) were obtained. During the wet period, positive NDVI trends are observed for almost the entire territory of the Republic, while the dry period is characterized by a significant increase in the negative trends of the vegetation index. The positive correlation between the Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient and NDVI is observed for intermountain steppificated hollows, negative for forest landscapes. The dynamics of NDVI of steppe vegetation largely depends on precipitation, the dynamics of NDVI of forests — on temperature. Reforestation, post-pyrogenic succession, shrubbing of abandoned fields, etc., cause the increase of NDVI. Negative NDVI trends are typical for steppe ecosystems under conditions of decreasing precipitation, and for forest vegetation prone to cuttings and fires.
Bobushev T.S., Sultanaliev K.E. ASSESSMENT AND ADAPTATION OF LDN APPROACH TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAND RESOURCES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 43-47. | PDF
The work on study and adaptation of the concept and methodological framework of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) in the Kyrgyz Republic was started in 2016 within the scope of the relevant project. Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification provided to the country the comprehensive dataset containing information and materials derived from the interpretation of the global satellite imagery and reflecting key land degradation indicators for the Kyrgyz Republic. This dataset was analyzed by comparison with available national data collected during field studies, series of meetings and consultations with respective governmental and non-governmental institutions.
Research work by the team of the national experts resulted in sound comparison of the international (UNCCD data) and national data on land use. Particularly, there was conducted a comparative analysis on categories of land resources. However, a further work needs to be done to verify international and national LDN indicators on land use using alternative satellite imagery and specific field research activities.
Keywords: land degradation neutrality, land use, land degradation indicators.
Ptichnikov A.V., Martyniuk A.A. ABOUT ADAPTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY INDICATORS FOR FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE DRY CONDITIONS OF RUSSIA // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 48-56. | PDF
The article is devoted to the large-scale problem of the deterioration of protective forest stands in the arid lands of southern Russia. The deterioration is mainly related to a sharp decrease of forest management level by forest service due to a reduction in funding, as well as relater to a change in land ownership of forest shelter belts. The worsening of forest stands is manifested in their pollution by household and industrial waste, damage by fires, illegal logging, diseases and pests, the development of processes of soil sodding, thinning and decay of forests. More than half of them now have unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, have reached the age limits, and are disintegrating. Given the scale of the problem, it is proposed to use LDN tools to monitor changes in such afforestation and, taking into account the existing practice, to supplement the set of global LDN indicators with a number of national indicators, including taxation characteristics of forest stands: stock, forest cover, and overall volume increase (taking into account the decline). It is also proposed to use an additional indicator in the form of the level of biological diversity (species diversity of trees and shrubs in protective forest stands). The LDN assessment should be carried out taking into account the presence of forest stands on public and private lands with different management objectives.
Keywords: forests in arid climatic conditions, land degradation neutrality, protective afforestation, taxation characteristics of forest stands.
Shapovalov D.A., Klyushin P.V., Savinova S.V. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN STAVROPOL REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 57-62. | PDF
The article provides material of monitoring and, analysis of the state and dynamics of erosion processes of agricultural land for the 16-year (2000-2016) period in the regions of the Stavropol territory. Currently, the spontaneous decline in agricultural production, primarily due to the farming culture, not so much contributes to the restoration of natural bioresources and biodiversity, but exacerbates the negative processes. An algorithm for assessing the state of the land has been proposed and the territorial distribution of 11 types of negative processes in the Stavropol region has been determined
Dedova E.B., Gol’dvarg B.А., Tsagan-Mandzhiev N.L. LAND DEGRADATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA: PROBLEMS AND WAYS TO RECOVER // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 63-71. | PDF
The Republic of Kalmykia is located in the European part of the arid zone of the Russian Federation, where one of the serious environmental and socio-economic problem is the desertification of a significant part (up to 80 %) of its territory. So, from 6264 thousand hectares of agricultural lands 77.9 % is subjected to various types of degradation, from them waterlogged-93.96 thousand hectares, eroded-526.18 thousand hectares, deflated-1753.92 thousand hectares, salinized-2505.6 thousand hectares. The highest indices of deflationary degradation are observed in the South-Eastern regions of Kalmykia (IDD 31.7-71.1 points), which is due to natural (increased aridity of the climate) and anthropogenic (excessive pasture load) factors. The conceptual model reflecting the mechanism of meliorative influence on the degradation processes proceeding on the lands of agricultural use under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is developed. An agrobiological method of phytomelioration of degraded lands on open sand massifs is proposed, including planting of leafless juzgun (Calligonum aphyllum (Pall.) Gurke.), giant hair (Leymus racemosus Lam. Tzvel.), prostrate rod (Bassia prostrata (L.) A. J. Scott), grey teresken (Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst.) and Siberian Wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum (Willd.) P. Beav.). The complexes of reclamation measures are developed. They are differentiated for different categories of agricultural lands, providing the creation of optimal conditions for increasing the natural resource potential of arid ecosystems and aimed at preventing desertification, leveling the complexity of the soil cover, reducing natural and anthropogenic salinity, salinity and the risk of other negative processes.
Sukhoveeva O.E., Zolotukhin A.N., Karelin D.V. CLIMATE-DETERMINED CHANGES OF ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN ARABLE CHERNOZEMS IN KURSK REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 72-79. | PDF
Two simulation biogeochemical models of carbon turnover in a soil ‒ DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) and RothC (Rothamsted long term field experiment Carbon model) – had been parametrized for arable Haplic Chernozems in Kursk region. Also, they had been verified by field estimates of CO2 soil emission in Kursk biosphere station (Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences) under five crops: winter wheat, barley, corn, sunflower, and potato. The dynamics of soil organic carbon stocks was calculated by modeling over the period 1990-2018. RothC’s estimates of soil organic carbon losses were region-specific, they mainly depended on weather conditions, their average rate was 342 ± 54 kg С ha-1 yr-1. Whereas the results of DNDC were more specific for each crop, they varied from maximal losses under corn 272 kg С ha-1 yr-1 to accumulation under winter wheat 266 kg С ha-1 yr-1. The reconstruction of agroclimatic conditions in 1990-2018 evidenced a significant increase in heat supply, which was due to rise of average annual air temperature (0,68°С/10 yr) and positive degree-days (224°С/10 yr). The variability in annual moisture supply during the same period was more than 20 %. As correlation analysis showed, the long-term dynamics of soil organic carbon in Kursk region mainly depends on temperature characteristics, namely positive degree-days, Selyaninov’s hydrothermal coefficient, Sapozhnikova’s humidification coefficient, whereas precipitation in warm period was less significant.