Kulik K.N., Petrov V.I., Yuferev V.G., Tkachenko N.A., Shinkarenko S.S. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH-WESTERN PRECASPIAN REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 16-24. | PDF
An analysis of the desertification of the North-Western Precaspian region using geo-information technologies and aerospace data to identify changes in the area of hotspots of desertification showed that the area of degraded and deserted lands increases with the growth in the quantity of sheep and goats. With a relatively stable number of animals, the role of climatic factors increases, which leads to an increase in the speed and amplitude of changes in the area of hotspots of desertification, both in the direction of decrease, with sufficient moisture, and an increase in dry years. Landscape fires have a significant impact, which lead not only to a decrease in the projective cover, but also to the depletion of the species composition of vegetation. The study and mapping of the relief made it possible to establish spatially determined geomorphological features of the territory as a factor affecting local moisture, and, accordingly, on the stability of ecosystems and the possibility of phytomelioration.
Dedova E.B., Gol’dvarg B.А., Tsagan-Mandzhiev N.L. LAND DEGRADATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA: PROBLEMS AND WAYS TO RECOVER // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 63-71. | PDF
The Republic of Kalmykia is located in the European part of the arid zone of the Russian Federation, where one of the serious environmental and socio-economic problem is the desertification of a significant part (up to 80 %) of its territory. So, from 6264 thousand hectares of agricultural lands 77.9 % is subjected to various types of degradation, from them waterlogged-93.96 thousand hectares, eroded-526.18 thousand hectares, deflated-1753.92 thousand hectares, salinized-2505.6 thousand hectares. The highest indices of deflationary degradation are observed in the South-Eastern regions of Kalmykia (IDD 31.7-71.1 points), which is due to natural (increased aridity of the climate) and anthropogenic (excessive pasture load) factors. The conceptual model reflecting the mechanism of meliorative influence on the degradation processes proceeding on the lands of agricultural use under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is developed. An agrobiological method of phytomelioration of degraded lands on open sand massifs is proposed, including planting of leafless juzgun (Calligonum aphyllum (Pall.) Gurke.), giant hair (Leymus racemosus Lam. Tzvel.), prostrate rod (Bassia prostrata (L.) A. J. Scott), grey teresken (Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst.) and Siberian Wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum (Willd.) P. Beav.). The complexes of reclamation measures are developed. They are differentiated for different categories of agricultural lands, providing the creation of optimal conditions for increasing the natural resource potential of arid ecosystems and aimed at preventing desertification, leveling the complexity of the soil cover, reducing natural and anthropogenic salinity, salinity and the risk of other negative processes.
Tyutyuma N.V., Bulakhtina G.K., Kudryashov A.V., Kudryashova N.I. MELIORATIVE EFFICIENCY OF THE BELT OF SHRUBS ON THE ARID PASTURES OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 1 (82). P. 62-68 . | PDF
In this article we present the long-term study (2008-2018) of the influence of a belt of shrubs on the vegetation cover of semi-deserted and degraded pastures. We investigated the changes of snow cover depth during the winter period, productive soil moisture storage, species composition and arid pastures productivity in the dynamics of growth and development of the belt of shrubs. These experiments were carried out according to the methods developed by the All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Afforestation (1973), the All-Russian Research Institute of Forages (2015) and B.A. Dospekhov (1985). In comparison with a natural pasture without belts it was revealed that the snow cover depth was growing 3.5-11 times depending on the increased height of Krascheninnikovia shrubs and the amount of precipitation; soil moisture storage increased by 7.2-9.1 mm in the first 5 years, and by 8.8-24.8 mm when the belt’s height was more than 1 m; in the next 10 years the amount of dominant plant species increased by 4 species in the area with the belt of shrubs; pasture productivity increased 1.3-3.9 times in the 3rd years of Krascheninnikovia shrubs vegetation.
Keywords: phytocenosis of pastures, degradation, desertification, belt of shrubs, productive soil moisture storage.