Zalibekov Z.G., Mamaev S.А., Grinchenko О.S., Kotenko М.Е., Мagomedov R.А. Priorities of the Development Strategy of the Worldwide Researches of Arid Lands // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 3 (84). P. 3-13. | PDF
The assessment of the global state of desertification highlights the need of information describing global extension of arid degradation and damage it causes. In the context of climate warming, which is noticed at the present time, all new regions will be exposed to drought, weakening the stability of the degraded lands. However the frequency of droughts increases in arid regions with high intensity. The efforts of scientists and practitioners have been reflected in the journal «Arid ecosystems» over the past 25-years, allowed us to obtain final information about the mechanisms of degradation of soils, vegetation and wildlife. Based on the scientific achievements in anthropogenic dynamics of desertification processes and resource potential of individual components of arid ecosystems, it is necessary to make a reasonable approach to the strategy and identify methods for implementing the presented concepts, programs and projects. Generalization of theoretical positions of productivity restoration, stability of a soil cover allowed to present fundamental research of the world arid lands as an independent concept of «green economy». Its main specific feature is the differentiation of human impact: natural and medical-biological. The last aspect includes the assessment of the social situation of people living in conditions of increasing droughts, dry spells and climate warming.
Keywords: soil degradation, new stage, research strategy, sustainable development, socio-economic priorities, «green economy», concept revision, desertification, climate change.
Kust G.S., Andreeva O.V., Lobkovskiy V.A. LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY – THE NEW GLOBAL CONCEPT AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE DRYLANDS RESEARCHING AT NATIONAL LEVEL // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 3-9. | PDF
The assessment based on the applying of the concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) and of the method for assessing LDN indicators for Russian drylands is presented for the first time. It is shown that the LDN is not reached wherever in the arid and semiarid regions in Russian Federation, since the proportion of land that is degraded over total land area in 2001-2015 is everywhere positive and ranges from 9 to 67%. The concept of “LDN index” is introduced for making convenient to compare and rank individual territories. An assessment of some arid regions of Russia according to this indicator is provided. The obtained preliminary results need to be validated and refined based on a comparison with the available national data collected by traditional methods.
Keywords: land degradation neutrality, desertification, drylands, land degradation.
Bezuglova O.S., Nazarenko O.G., Ilyinskaya I.N. DYNAMICS OF LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ROSTOV REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 10-15. | PDF
The Rostov region, located in the southeast of the European part of the Russian Federation, is characterized by a temperate continental climate with somewhat unstable humidity levels. Typical summers are dry and hot, while winters have relatively little snow and constant winds. Climatic and geomorphological features of the territory, as well as the high agricultural development of land resources determine the development of a number of deterioration processes. The purpose of the research was to make a comparative spatio-temporal assessment of degradation processes that contribute to the development of the desertification process in the Rostov region. The basis of the research was the analysis of literature and archival data in retrospect, the use of calculated natural and environmental indicators, differentiated study of soil types common for the region and the degree of natural humidity of the agrolandscape in accordance with the ecological stability and hydrothermal regime of the territory. It has been established that the climate aridization, agro-depletion, erosion development are typical for the Rostov Region. This allows for evaluation Rostov region as a territory with a risk of potential desertification.
Kulik K.N., Petrov V.I., Yuferev V.G., Tkachenko N.A., Shinkarenko S.S. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH-WESTERN PRECASPIAN REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 16-24. | PDF
An analysis of the desertification of the North-Western Precaspian region using geo-information technologies and aerospace data to identify changes in the area of hotspots of desertification showed that the area of degraded and deserted lands increases with the growth in the quantity of sheep and goats. With a relatively stable number of animals, the role of climatic factors increases, which leads to an increase in the speed and amplitude of changes in the area of hotspots of desertification, both in the direction of decrease, with sufficient moisture, and an increase in dry years. Landscape fires have a significant impact, which lead not only to a decrease in the projective cover, but also to the depletion of the species composition of vegetation. The study and mapping of the relief made it possible to establish spatially determined geomorphological features of the territory as a factor affecting local moisture, and, accordingly, on the stability of ecosystems and the possibility of phytomelioration.
Tyutyuma N.V., Bulakhtina G.K., Kudryashov A.V., Kudryashova N.I. MELIORATIVE EFFICIENCY OF THE BELT OF SHRUBS ON THE ARID PASTURES OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 1 (82). P. 62-68 . | PDF
In this article we present the long-term study (2008-2018) of the influence of a belt of shrubs on the vegetation cover of semi-deserted and degraded pastures. We investigated the changes of snow cover depth during the winter period, productive soil moisture storage, species composition and arid pastures productivity in the dynamics of growth and development of the belt of shrubs. These experiments were carried out according to the methods developed by the All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Afforestation (1973), the All-Russian Research Institute of Forages (2015) and B.A. Dospekhov (1985). In comparison with a natural pasture without belts it was revealed that the snow cover depth was growing 3.5-11 times depending on the increased height of Krascheninnikovia shrubs and the amount of precipitation; soil moisture storage increased by 7.2-9.1 mm in the first 5 years, and by 8.8-24.8 mm when the belt’s height was more than 1 m; in the next 10 years the amount of dominant plant species increased by 4 species in the area with the belt of shrubs; pasture productivity increased 1.3-3.9 times in the 3rd years of Krascheninnikovia shrubs vegetation.
Keywords: phytocenosis of pastures, degradation, desertification, belt of shrubs, productive soil moisture storage.
Vlasenko M.V., Kulik A.K., Salugin A.N. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION AND PRODUCTIVITY LOSSES OF ARID PASTURES ECOSYSTEMS OF SARPINSKY LOWLAND // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 71-81. | PDF
We monitored the pastures ecosystems of the semi-arid zone in Sarpinsky Lowland of Russia and registered some local problems. The experimental data was collected through 1999-2017. It is stated that the present agro-landscape conditions are critical. The degraded pastures account for more than 600 thousands ha (34%), more than the half of which are highly degraded. 35-40%, of the total area of the regional forage grounds (about 1870 thousands ha) are moderately overgrazed, 30-40% are highly overgrazed, and 15-20% are excluded from the agricultural management and have turned into broken sands and abandoned territories. The digression is severely high on the winter (year-round) pastures. The area of open and drift sands has increased to 20-30%. In some districts the pressure on the pastures exceeds the optimal index 5-7 times. Almost all pastures need resting periods and agricultural restoration. Desertification (salinity, erosion and deflation) is a severe problem of the region. As the result of it the productivity loss of the pastures is 1052.7 thousands hwt of feed-units per year. Agroforestry measures have a significant value for preventing of soil erosion and deflation and are considered to be the many-functional, long-term protection factor. A map of forest conditions was composed to achieve the maximal ecological- and economical result of agroforestation; it was based on the agroforestry classification which represents the natural characteristics of the territory and features of its agroforestry developing