Khydyrov P.R. BIODIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIBATID MITES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF THE KOPETDAG // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 3 (92). P. 101-106. | PDF
The results of studies on the biodiversity and ecology of mites inhabiting the South-West of the Kopetdag are presented. In particular, 41 species of oribatid mites have been identified in the soil, litter under trees and shrubs, as well as in anthills and holes of rodents, including 3 new species for the fauna of Turkmenistan.
The significance of these mites in the decomposition of plant residues and in soil-forming processes is shown. In the mountains the oribatid mites are capable of life from the second half of March to the end of November. It was found that from mid-May to October, the number of mites in the deserts and steppes reaches its peak of individuals 25-30 ekz./. The lowest indices of the number of oribatid mites were recorded in June specimens 2-7 ekz./ this is explained by the lack of moisture and food resources in the soil. The observations revealed the optimal value of moisture content 5-25% and soil temperature +3 — +25 0C for the development of mites.
Our research has revealed, for the first time, the breeding centers of mites in anthills. Two ecological groups of myrmecophilic mites have been identified: detritus-phages and zoonecrophages. Myrmecophilic detritus phages were assigned to 14 species of mites that were found in the nests of ants feeding on the seeds of herbaceous plants. The group of myrmecophilic zoonecrophages includes 6 species of mites. They are found in the nests of ants that feed on the corpses of insects.
We examined also the data on the finding of oribatid mites in the holes of rodents. The identification of nidicolous species of oribatid mites is considered as a result of their adaptation to arid habitat conditions.
Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the State assignment of the Department of Biology of the S. Seidi Turkmen State Pedagogical Institute «Biodiversity of soil mites of various systematic groups (Acari: Sarcoptiformes, Trombidiformes) and their ecology» (No. 10.00.2313).
Yusupov A.R., Kurbanismailova A.S., Alkhulaev K.G., Mamaev A.S., Yusupov Z.A. THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LAKES IN ARID REGIONS OF DAGESTAN (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE GREAT AND SMALL TURALI) // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 4 (88). P. 118-122. | PDF
Anthropogenic impact on the ecosystems of arid areas leads to environmental pollution. Assessment of the state of nature of arid regions is the most important task in the context of scientific and technological progress.
When studying the current state of the Turaly lakes, as representatives of reservoirs of arid conditions, various research methods were used. This made it possible to draw a conclusion about the level of pollution of objects and to assess the ecological condition of reservoirs characteristic of natural complexes of arid conditions.
Financing. The work was carried out on the topics of the Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences: «Assessment and revision of the mineragenic potential of the North Caucasus on the basis of modern stratigraphic and lithological-geochemical methods of analysis of sedimentary complexes»(State registration No. AAAA19-119122690018-8) and «Ecological and geochemical features of groundwater in the North-Eastern Caucasus (Dagestan). Natural and anthropogenic pollution factors» (State Registration No. AAAAA 117-117021310203-3.
Alichaev M.M., Sultanova M.G. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE SOIL PROCESSES OF THE HIGHLANDS OF DAGESTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 61-65.
The article presents the materials of route, stationary soil, soil-ecological studies conducted in the high-mountain zone of Dagestan with the characteristic: a) the current features of the development of the soil cover; b) the ecological parameters of the soil cover and their changes under the influence of climate warming.
The variety of natural and economic conditions of the object of study caused a significant diversity of the soil cover. The distribution of the soil was greatly influenced by the height of the terrain, the exposure and the steepness of the slopes. Based on the soil erosion studies conducted in previous periods, it can be noted that improper land use and climate warming have led to radical changes in the composition of the soil cover in terms of determining indicators – soil erosion.
In recent years, the area of eroded land has doubled, the area with heavily eroded soils-by 1/3. This led to a decrease in the thickness of humus horizons in almost all soils to an average of 20 cm, and the loss of humus reserves in the soils amounted to 60% of the initial content. The presented analysis of the degradation of the soil cover and the established patterns of soil evolution on the slope lands of the highlands serve as a theoretical basis for the reproduction of soil fertility, the preservation of the ecological role of soil protection from erosion and other degradation processes.
Funding. This work was carried out within the state assignment No. 0733-2019-0005 “To Develop an Assessment System for Modern Trends of Soil Processes Development in Natural Landscapes of the Mountainous Province of the Republic of Dagestan”.
Shapovalov D.A., Klyushin P.V., Savinova S.V. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN STAVROPOL REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 57-62. | PDF
The article provides material of monitoring and, analysis of the state and dynamics of erosion processes of agricultural land for the 16-year (2000-2016) period in the regions of the Stavropol territory. Currently, the spontaneous decline in agricultural production, primarily due to the farming culture, not so much contributes to the restoration of natural bioresources and biodiversity, but exacerbates the negative processes. An algorithm for assessing the state of the land has been proposed and the territorial distribution of 11 types of negative processes in the Stavropol region has been determined