Ogureeva G.N., Bocharnikov M.V. ECOSYSTEM AND BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH-EAST ALTAI–TUVA DESERT-STEPPE OROBIOME // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 75-82. | PDF
Based on the biome concept of ecosystem diversity and the ecological-geographical approach to the analysis of biodiversity, a regional assessment of the unique South-East Altai-Tuva orobiome for Russia is given. Orobiome is considered as a strong unit for inventory and analysis of ecosystem and biotic diversity of mountain territories. The characteristic of bioclimatic indicators characterizing the originality of the desert-steppe orobiome of the Subarid class of belt types and its high-altitude belts is given. The altitudinal-belt structure of the vegetation cover is revealed, according to which the spatial differentiation of flora, plant communities, and ecosystems are formed. A quantitative assessment of the floristic (about 1400 species of vascular plants) and phytocenotic diversity by belts (nival, wasteland-tundra, forest-steppe, steppebelts) is iven. The features of the spatial structure of the diversity of communities in the conditions of the mountainous territory are revealed.
Funding. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task on the topic «Spatio-temporal organization of ecosystems in the conditions of environmental changes» of Moscow State University and on the basis of the MWG Herbarium (created with the support of the Moscow University Development Program).
Totubaeva N.E., Shalpykov K.T. DYNAMICS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF SOILS IN THE CHU VALLEY WITH CHANGES IN THE TYPE OF PASTURE USE // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 2 (91). P. 78-84. | PDF
Soil microflora is one of the first to feel the negative impact from the outside and can serve as a good biological indicator of changes in the soil structure and assess the degree of impact on the soil ecosystem. Studies were conducted on two demonstration plots, one of which was withdrawn from pasture use for two years and compared with the control variant, actively used. The studies showed that reduction of anthropogenic load, on the studied demonstration plots, significantly leads to activation of microbiological processes and a significant increase in microbiological diversity in the soil, which indicates improvement of enzymatic properties and acceleration of the process of soil self-repair. Researches have shown as well that soils being in a usual regime of unregulated overgrazing are considerably exposed to drying and trampling that leads to reduction of microbiological diversity in a soil ecosystem and domination of forms of microorganisms resistant to adverse environmental factors. The data obtained suggest that overgrazing affects the structure of soil microbiocenosis replacing it with more drought-resistant species. Micromycetes of the studied soils were represented in the dominance of Trichoderma, Cladosporium and Alternaria species resistant to unfavorable environmental factors, i.e. the species diversity was insignificant with the predominance of representatives of dominant species. Thus, the microbiological diversity of soils exposed to various degrees of anthropogenic pressure can serve as a biological indicator of the state of the soil ecosystem, it is also necessary to resolve the issue of regulation of rotational grazing, which can also ensure the preservation of pasture productivity and contribute to the conservation of biological diversity of flora and fauna of pastures respectively.
Keywords: microbiological diversity, anthropogenic load, soil monitoring, ecosystem, type of pasture use, pasture degradation.
Financing. All activities within the framework of the project «Protection of wild tulips and support of pasture communities in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan» were carried out jointly with partner organizations: FC «Fauna and Flora International» in the Kyrgyz Republic, OF «Bioresources» and «Association of Forest Users and Land Users of Kyrgyzstan», with financial support from the Darwin Initiative program of the UK Government.