Alichaev M.M., Sultanova M.G., Musalaeva P.D. DIFFERENTIATION OF SOIL PROCESSES BY STAGES OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS OF THE ARID CLIMATE ZONE // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 46-54. | PDF
The modern processes of manifestation of the stages of desertification and arid degradation and the dynamics of their development depending on soil fertility in arid conditions are considered on the example of the regions of the Western Caspian – the Tersko-Kuma lowland and the Terek Delta. The development of degradation processes proceeds in two stages, fundamentally different in content and scale of territorial distribution.
The first stage – natural degradation — originates from the time of the development of soil formation processes in the Holocene as one of the indispensable elements of the functioning of living organisms on the Earth’s surface. The natural dynamics of degradation processes proceeds with the formation of an equilibrium state of soil formation with the formation of certain types of soils of a full-profile structure. Depending on the conditions of soil formation characteristic of the degradation direction, such as salinization, pollution, salinity of soils at different stages of their development, salt marshes, salt flats, sandy and clay deserts are formed. The development of these soil properties in natural conditions continues at the present time, their evolution proceeds, starting in the Holocene epoch (Akaev, 1996).
On the second stage the dynamics of arid degradation and desertification is caused by anthropogenic impact, radically different from the indicators of natural degradation. As a result of the increased anthropogenic impact, the natural state of the soil cover is replaced by an unstable secondary one in artificial conditions. The measures contributing to the formation of new directions of soil formation include: the expansion of irrigated land areas in the Terek Delta, the Tersko-Kuma lowland and in other regions, the vulnerability of developed soils to natural salinization phenomena, wind erosion and degradation.
Keywords: stages of soil origination, Holocene differentiation, anthropogenic differentiation, fertility, halophytes, arid degradation, geological time periods, historical time periods.
Alichaev M.M., Sultanova M.G. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE SOIL PROCESSES OF THE HIGHLANDS OF DAGESTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 61-65.
The article presents the materials of route, stationary soil, soil-ecological studies conducted in the high-mountain zone of Dagestan with the characteristic: a) the current features of the development of the soil cover; b) the ecological parameters of the soil cover and their changes under the influence of climate warming.
The variety of natural and economic conditions of the object of study caused a significant diversity of the soil cover. The distribution of the soil was greatly influenced by the height of the terrain, the exposure and the steepness of the slopes. Based on the soil erosion studies conducted in previous periods, it can be noted that improper land use and climate warming have led to radical changes in the composition of the soil cover in terms of determining indicators – soil erosion.
In recent years, the area of eroded land has doubled, the area with heavily eroded soils-by 1/3. This led to a decrease in the thickness of humus horizons in almost all soils to an average of 20 cm, and the loss of humus reserves in the soils amounted to 60% of the initial content. The presented analysis of the degradation of the soil cover and the established patterns of soil evolution on the slope lands of the highlands serve as a theoretical basis for the reproduction of soil fertility, the preservation of the ecological role of soil protection from erosion and other degradation processes.
Funding. This work was carried out within the state assignment No. 0733-2019-0005 “To Develop an Assessment System for Modern Trends of Soil Processes Development in Natural Landscapes of the Mountainous Province of the Republic of Dagestan”.
Chimitdorzhieva G.D. CHERNOZEMS OF WESTERN TRANSBAIKAL: DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY ELEMENTS, ORGANIC MATTER, HUMUS, CROPS // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 4 (85). P. 136-143. | PDF
The chernozems of Transbaikal, along with chestnut soils, are intensively used in agriculture of the region. Their humus level is low (4.2%), they have a light particle size distribution and are spreading in patches, mostly on the various slopes, and are subject to deflation. Their biological activity is low due to their deep level of freezing (4 m) and slow thawing. The microorganisms are distributed only in their surface layers. The amounts of annual fresh organic matter are low, their destruction is slow. Humus is fulvic-humate with a high content of non-hydrolyzable residue (48%). The harvest of spring wheat in the farms of the region is 12-13 cwt/ha. Only by application of the sparing agriculture and adaptive land management methods, the harvest can be increased up to 21 cwt/ha.
Keywords: chernozems, organic matter, humus, fertility, West Baikal Region.