Kungurtsev A.J., Suleymanov R., Ovsyannikov V.V., Savelyev N.S., Abakumov E.V., Asylbaev I.G. HUMUS STATUS OF SOILS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF THE EARLY IRON AGE (REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN) // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 4 (88). P. 59-69. | PDF
The organic matter of modern and buried humus horizons of soils has been studied on the example of the archaeological monuments Akberdinskoe-II, Shipovskoe and Okhlebininskoe-II settlement (Kara-Abyz culture of the early Iron Age of the IV century BC — the turn of the II-I centuries BC). Archaeological sites are located on the territory of the Iglinsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan within the forest-steppe zone. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of soils are determined. Additionally, methods of spectrophotometry and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used. On the territory of archaeological sites, dark gray forest soils of loamy granulometric composition are common. The thickness of the daytime and buried humus horizons of soils is 11-30 cm . Organic matter is represented by fulvate-humate, humate and humate-fulvate types of humus. The group composition is dominated by humic acids, and among the fractions of humic acids – the fraction of GC-2. The results of spectrophotometry showed a more mature state of the aromatic part of humic acid molecules for buried humus horizons compared to modern humus horizons. Humic acid molecules of the organic matter of modern humus horizons, according to the results of 13C NMR spectroscopy, correspond to the conditions of the chernozem type of soil formation. In general, the modern intensification of climate aridization in the forest-steppe zone of the Republic of Bashkortostan originates, according to archaeologists, from the middle of the IV century BC and the turn of the II-I centuries BC In the soil cover of archaeological sites at the time of observation of the change in the type of soil formation was not found.
Funding. This research was carried out within the state assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences) No. 075-00326-19-00, Theme “Studying the Risks of Soils Desertification in the Steppe Zone of the South Ural Region: Factors, Trends and Development of Ways to Reduce Its Negative Consequences” No. AAAA-A18-118022190102-3; and supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Project No. 17-11-02001-OGN “Cultural and Historical Processes and Changes of the Natural and Climatic Conditions during the Early Iron Age in the Forest-Steppe Territory of Aral Region” (Institute of History, Language and Literature of Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The humic acids were studied in the Scientific Park of Saint Petersburg State University (“Magnetic-Resonance Research Methods” and “Methods for Analysis of Matter Composition” resource centers).
Bazha S.N., Danzhalova E.V., Drobyshev Yu.I., Bogdanov E.A., Baskhaeva T.G., Rupyshev Yu.A., Ubugunova V.I., Tsyrempilov E.G., Ivanov L.A., Ivanova L.A., Migalina S.V., Khadbaatar S., Tserenkhand G., Shinekhuu T. ECO-BIOLOGICAL FEATURES FOR THE PRUNUS SIBIRICA L. DISTRIBUTION IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE SELENGA BASIN // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 4 (85). P. 35-45. | PDF
The article discusses the ways of the expansion of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) in the southern part of the Selenga River Basin. On the south-western border of the boreal forests, there is a clear trend in the succession of pine forests to shrub vegetation represented by Siberian apricot communities. This is facilitated by the reduction of forested areas due to fires, felling and grazing, which in turn leads to a change in landscape and environmental conditions in forest ecotopes. In addition, the strengthening of the coenotic position of Prunus sibirica occurs due to its physiological and biochemical adaptation to the pyrogenic factor and eating by cattle, as well as the variability of the functional parameters of this species.
Keywords: Prunus sibirica L., Mongolia, forest-steppe, deforestation, bush encroachment, post-forest succession, functional characteristics of plants.
Tishkov A.A., Belonovskaya E.A., Zolotukhin N.I., Titova S.V., Tsarevskaya N.G., Chendev Y.G. PRESERVED STEPPED AREAS AS A BASIS FOR THE FUTURE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF BELGOROD REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 1 (82). P. 43-53 . | PDF
Belgorod Oblast is a region of ancient economic development with the highest level of agricultural land use in Russia and, accordingly, anthropogenic transformation of zonal vegetation and black soils. Despite all the efforts during the recent years to improve the territorial protection of nature in the region, all categories of protected areas occupy only 1.8% of the territory, which is one of the lowest rates among the subjects of the Russian Federation. Steppe areas in protected areas occupy less than 10% of the area of all protected areas, i.e. 0.2% of the area of the region, which can’t serve as a basis for the conservation of steppe biodiversity and the formation of the ecological framework of the region, where the zonal type of vegetation − steppe. The article presents a historical analysis of the transformation of steppe vegetation in the region, the results of the inventory using remote sensing of the remaining areas of the steppes, assessing the potential of their flora for the development of secondary successions, effective for the conservation of steppe biodiversity of the regional network of protected areas and the formation of ecological framework. It is shown that the identified 699 sites with preserved zonal steppe vegetation (about 39 thousand hectares), small-contour and fragmented, are located on the inconveniences and heavily eroded slopes of beams and dens. Without special measures, they are not able to become the basis of the ecological framework. Thus, we propose approaches and methods of stimulating restoration of steppes and man-made post-agrogenic soils of the region.
Keywords: steppe, forest-steppe, meadow, real and Cretaceous steppes, Belgorod Region, protected area, ecological framework, black soils, regenerative succession, succession system, Belogorie nature reserve.