Kust G.S., Durikov M.H., Lobkovskiy V.A., Andreeva O.V., Nepesov M.D., Mamedov B.K., Nikolaev N.V. SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR SETTING LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY TARGETS IN TURKMENISTAN // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 115-131. | PDF
Setting National targets for achieving Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) and establishing monitoring systems for indicators is an important strategic objective in combating desertification and preventing land degradation in Turkmenistan, arising from the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goal 15.3 2030. The paper demonstrates the possibility of integrating of the LDN global indicators in the National Land Cover Monitoring System, which is currently under development, and provided with statistical and geoinformation data for the entire territory of the country. The paper shows how approaches can be developed to integrate the system of LDN indicators into the National Land Surface Monitoring System of Turkmenistan, which is currently under development, with the provision of statistical and geoinformation data for the entire country. Despite important new data obtained using global approaches, a reliable LDN monitoring basing on national data is currently not fully feasible, due to the fact that the global indicators are not sufficiently supported by available national data and do not correspond to global proxy indicators of dynamics land cover, land productivity and soil organic carbon. It is recommended to use cartographic and stock data collected and processed in the late 1980s-90s of the 20th century as a «baseline» for monitoring land degradation, as well as assessment data of the statement of protected areas. Additional and alternative LDN indicators of particular importance for Turkmenistan are proposed: salinization of soil and land, soil deflation, climate aridity, dust storms.
Keywords: Land Degradation Neutrality, Turkmenistan, land degradation, indicators, monitoring.
Financing. The article was prepared within the framework of the project of the GIZ Regional Program «Integrated Land Use taking into account climate change in Central Asia» (ILUCA) – collection of material and preliminary conclusions; topics of the State Assignment of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences No. FMWS-2022-0001 «Spatial and temporal problems of sustainable land use in the context of global climate change» (spatial data processing and formulation the main provisions and conclusions).
Andreeva O.V., Lobkovsky V. A., Kust G. S., and Zonn I.S. The Concept of Sustainable Land Management: Modern State, Models and Typology Development // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 1 (86). P. 3-14. | PDF
The urgent, global issue of sustainable land management (SLM) in Russia is considered based on a review of the state of modern research. However, the concept of sustainable land management and its methodology are at the stage of development. Definitions of the basic terms “object of land management” and “SLM model” have been formulated within the development of a methodology for SLM. In addition, approaches to typology of the land management objects have been formulated; hierarchical land management practices are described based on the concept of land degradation neutrality. Thus, 15 types of land management are divided into four classes: three classes of models characterized by SLM practices and one that involves practices, which cannot be considered sustainable. It is justified that a land degradation neutrality is not always achieved as a result of application of land management practices.
Keywords: sustainable land management, land degradation neutrality, sustainable land management model.
Kust G.S., Andreeva O.V., Lobkovskiy V.A. LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY – THE NEW GLOBAL CONCEPT AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE DRYLANDS RESEARCHING AT NATIONAL LEVEL // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 3-9. | PDF
The assessment based on the applying of the concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) and of the method for assessing LDN indicators for Russian drylands is presented for the first time. It is shown that the LDN is not reached wherever in the arid and semiarid regions in Russian Federation, since the proportion of land that is degraded over total land area in 2001-2015 is everywhere positive and ranges from 9 to 67%. The concept of “LDN index” is introduced for making convenient to compare and rank individual territories. An assessment of some arid regions of Russia according to this indicator is provided. The obtained preliminary results need to be validated and refined based on a comparison with the available national data collected by traditional methods.
Keywords: land degradation neutrality, desertification, drylands, land degradation.
Bobushev T.S., Sultanaliev K.E. ASSESSMENT AND ADAPTATION OF LDN APPROACH TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAND RESOURCES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 43-47. | PDF
The work on study and adaptation of the concept and methodological framework of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) in the Kyrgyz Republic was started in 2016 within the scope of the relevant project. Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification provided to the country the comprehensive dataset containing information and materials derived from the interpretation of the global satellite imagery and reflecting key land degradation indicators for the Kyrgyz Republic. This dataset was analyzed by comparison with available national data collected during field studies, series of meetings and consultations with respective governmental and non-governmental institutions.
Research work by the team of the national experts resulted in sound comparison of the international (UNCCD data) and national data on land use. Particularly, there was conducted a comparative analysis on categories of land resources. However, a further work needs to be done to verify international and national LDN indicators on land use using alternative satellite imagery and specific field research activities.
Keywords: land degradation neutrality, land use, land degradation indicators.
Ptichnikov A.V., Martyniuk A.A. ABOUT ADAPTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY INDICATORS FOR FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE DRY CONDITIONS OF RUSSIA // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 48-56. | PDF
The article is devoted to the large-scale problem of the deterioration of protective forest stands in the arid lands of southern Russia. The deterioration is mainly related to a sharp decrease of forest management level by forest service due to a reduction in funding, as well as relater to a change in land ownership of forest shelter belts. The worsening of forest stands is manifested in their pollution by household and industrial waste, damage by fires, illegal logging, diseases and pests, the development of processes of soil sodding, thinning and decay of forests. More than half of them now have unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, have reached the age limits, and are disintegrating. Given the scale of the problem, it is proposed to use LDN tools to monitor changes in such afforestation and, taking into account the existing practice, to supplement the set of global LDN indicators with a number of national indicators, including taxation characteristics of forest stands: stock, forest cover, and overall volume increase (taking into account the decline). It is also proposed to use an additional indicator in the form of the level of biological diversity (species diversity of trees and shrubs in protective forest stands). The LDN assessment should be carried out taking into account the presence of forest stands on public and private lands with different management objectives.
Keywords: forests in arid climatic conditions, land degradation neutrality, protective afforestation, taxation characteristics of forest stands.
Sukhoveeva O.E., Zolotukhin A.N., Karelin D.V. CLIMATE-DETERMINED CHANGES OF ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN ARABLE CHERNOZEMS IN KURSK REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 72-79. | PDF
Two simulation biogeochemical models of carbon turnover in a soil ‒ DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) and RothC (Rothamsted long term field experiment Carbon model) – had been parametrized for arable Haplic Chernozems in Kursk region. Also, they had been verified by field estimates of CO2 soil emission in Kursk biosphere station (Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences) under five crops: winter wheat, barley, corn, sunflower, and potato. The dynamics of soil organic carbon stocks was calculated by modeling over the period 1990-2018. RothC’s estimates of soil organic carbon losses were region-specific, they mainly depended on weather conditions, their average rate was 342 ± 54 kg С ha-1 yr-1. Whereas the results of DNDC were more specific for each crop, they varied from maximal losses under corn 272 kg С ha-1 yr-1 to accumulation under winter wheat 266 kg С ha-1 yr-1. The reconstruction of agroclimatic conditions in 1990-2018 evidenced a significant increase in heat supply, which was due to rise of average annual air temperature (0,68°С/10 yr) and positive degree-days (224°С/10 yr). The variability in annual moisture supply during the same period was more than 20 %. As correlation analysis showed, the long-term dynamics of soil organic carbon in Kursk region mainly depends on temperature characteristics, namely positive degree-days, Selyaninov’s hydrothermal coefficient, Sapozhnikova’s humidification coefficient, whereas precipitation in warm period was less significant.