Alichaev M.M., Sultanova M.G. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE SOIL PROCESSES OF THE HIGHLANDS OF DAGESTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 61-65.
The article presents the materials of route, stationary soil, soil-ecological studies conducted in the high-mountain zone of Dagestan with the characteristic: a) the current features of the development of the soil cover; b) the ecological parameters of the soil cover and their changes under the influence of climate warming.
The variety of natural and economic conditions of the object of study caused a significant diversity of the soil cover. The distribution of the soil was greatly influenced by the height of the terrain, the exposure and the steepness of the slopes. Based on the soil erosion studies conducted in previous periods, it can be noted that improper land use and climate warming have led to radical changes in the composition of the soil cover in terms of determining indicators – soil erosion.
In recent years, the area of eroded land has doubled, the area with heavily eroded soils-by 1/3. This led to a decrease in the thickness of humus horizons in almost all soils to an average of 20 cm, and the loss of humus reserves in the soils amounted to 60% of the initial content. The presented analysis of the degradation of the soil cover and the established patterns of soil evolution on the slope lands of the highlands serve as a theoretical basis for the reproduction of soil fertility, the preservation of the ecological role of soil protection from erosion and other degradation processes.
Funding. This work was carried out within the state assignment No. 0733-2019-0005 “To Develop an Assessment System for Modern Trends of Soil Processes Development in Natural Landscapes of the Mountainous Province of the Republic of Dagestan”.
Manaenkov A.S., Rybashlykova L.P. DEFLATION IN THE PASTURES OF NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 4 (85). P. 116-126. | PDF
Basing on the data of the study of phytoecological conditions and long-term monitoring of successions of the restored vegetation cover, we evaluated the efficiency of methods and techniques of phytomeliorative works in large foci of deflation performed in the 80-90 years of the last century on the chernozemel Pastures. The features of the formation of cultural communities, biological diversity, productivity and stability of secondary vegetation are under consideration in the article. The advantage of complex phytomelioration technologies including the use of woody, semi-shrubby and herbaceous plants was revealed. Proposals for their improvement in the direction of reducing the energy intensity of measures, rational use of long-term reserves of soil moisture, enrichment of secondary phytocenoses with valuable forage plants, increasing their functional longevity have been developed.
Keywords: Black lands, pastures, large centers of deflation, morphology and phytoecological conditions, technologies of phytomelioration, succession, efficiency.
Dedova E.B., Gol’dvarg B.А., Tsagan-Mandzhiev N.L. LAND DEGRADATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA: PROBLEMS AND WAYS TO RECOVER // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 63-71. | PDF
The Republic of Kalmykia is located in the European part of the arid zone of the Russian Federation, where one of the serious environmental and socio-economic problem is the desertification of a significant part (up to 80 %) of its territory. So, from 6264 thousand hectares of agricultural lands 77.9 % is subjected to various types of degradation, from them waterlogged-93.96 thousand hectares, eroded-526.18 thousand hectares, deflated-1753.92 thousand hectares, salinized-2505.6 thousand hectares. The highest indices of deflationary degradation are observed in the South-Eastern regions of Kalmykia (IDD 31.7-71.1 points), which is due to natural (increased aridity of the climate) and anthropogenic (excessive pasture load) factors. The conceptual model reflecting the mechanism of meliorative influence on the degradation processes proceeding on the lands of agricultural use under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is developed. An agrobiological method of phytomelioration of degraded lands on open sand massifs is proposed, including planting of leafless juzgun (Calligonum aphyllum (Pall.) Gurke.), giant hair (Leymus racemosus Lam. Tzvel.), prostrate rod (Bassia prostrata (L.) A. J. Scott), grey teresken (Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst.) and Siberian Wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum (Willd.) P. Beav.). The complexes of reclamation measures are developed. They are differentiated for different categories of agricultural lands, providing the creation of optimal conditions for increasing the natural resource potential of arid ecosystems and aimed at preventing desertification, leveling the complexity of the soil cover, reducing natural and anthropogenic salinity, salinity and the risk of other negative processes.
Vlasenko M.V., Kulik A.K., Salugin A.N. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION AND PRODUCTIVITY LOSSES OF ARID PASTURES ECOSYSTEMS OF SARPINSKY LOWLAND // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 71-81. | PDF
We monitored the pastures ecosystems of the semi-arid zone in Sarpinsky Lowland of Russia and registered some local problems. The experimental data was collected through 1999-2017. It is stated that the present agro-landscape conditions are critical. The degraded pastures account for more than 600 thousands ha (34%), more than the half of which are highly degraded. 35-40%, of the total area of the regional forage grounds (about 1870 thousands ha) are moderately overgrazed, 30-40% are highly overgrazed, and 15-20% are excluded from the agricultural management and have turned into broken sands and abandoned territories. The digression is severely high on the winter (year-round) pastures. The area of open and drift sands has increased to 20-30%. In some districts the pressure on the pastures exceeds the optimal index 5-7 times. Almost all pastures need resting periods and agricultural restoration. Desertification (salinity, erosion and deflation) is a severe problem of the region. As the result of it the productivity loss of the pastures is 1052.7 thousands hwt of feed-units per year. Agroforestry measures have a significant value for preventing of soil erosion and deflation and are considered to be the many-functional, long-term protection factor. A map of forest conditions was composed to achieve the maximal ecological- and economical result of agroforestation; it was based on the agroforestry classification which represents the natural characteristics of the territory and features of its agroforestry developing