Kuzmina Zh.V., Troshkin S.E., Shinkarenko S.S. Influence of Dammed River Flow and Climate Changes on the Dynamics of Terrestrial Systems of the Low Volga // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 3-18. | PDF
This article continues a series, published here previously, about complex ecological studies in the basin of Low Volga, which were started in 2014 to explore the modern state of terrestrial ecosystems and reveal tendencies of transformations of natural environment as well as the responsiveness of those ecosystems under the influence of climate changes and anthropogenic factors. The studies were carried out according to our own original two-stage method of evaluation of disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems under the changes of area flooding. On the first stage we found out about the possible changes in the flooding according to the analysis of changes of perennial climate and hydrological data. On the second stage we evaluated the degree of ecosystems and landscapes disturbance according to the complex of various biological indices. The main reasons of changes of abiotical (hydrological and climatic) components of ecosystems, influencing the transformation of landscapes, were revealed for Low Volga. We determined the main reasons of changes of some components of terrestrial ecosystems, related to the growth of winter low water expense and winter fall-off, which along with climate changes affect the increase of gleying of soils on the entire profile and degradation of floodplain ecosystems.
Keywords: winter low water expense, ground water level, gleying, floodplain ecosystems, vegetation dynamics, ecosystems disturbance.
Sheremetyev I.S., Rozenfeld S.B. Landscape Changes in the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition and Range Dynamics of Large Herbivore Mammals of Northern Asia // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 19-28. | PDF
The paper deals with impacts of decreasing steppe and tundra areas in Northern Asia at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition on large herbivore mammals’ ranges. The relation of the specific characters’ complex of the herbivores to their landscape assignment was estimated. It was found that 17000-7000 years ago, in addition to mongolian gazelle, saiga and muskox, only the ranges of bighorn sheep, domestic sheep and goat ancestors and probably long-tailed goral could be decreased directly due to the late Quaternary landscape changes. The sika deer range extension may be explained by open landscape decreasing similarly to musk deer assigned only to forest landscape. Any significant range changes in roe deer, red deer, reindeer, moose, wild boar, steppe bison, mammoth, woolly rhinoceros and also in the domestic horse and cattle ancestors could not be directly conditioned by the landscape changes even if chronologically coincided with them.
Keywords: geographic range, global changes, habitat, steppe, herbivores, tundra.
Chimitdorzhieva G.D., Tsybikova E.V. Features of Humus of Chestnut Soils of Southern Catholic of Siberia // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 29-35. | PDF
In the process of evolution under conditions of long and deep freezing and drying of the soil profile, with frequent seasonal diurnal temperature fluctuations, chestnut soils with low-condensed and developed aliphatic chains, humic acids (HA) are formed, which give them an unstable character. This is evidenced by the modern ecological state of chestnut soils, the extent of degraded arable and pasture lands in the Republic of Buryatia reach significant areas. Their location in the basins between the mountains, often causes a high exposure to the effects of deflation processes, which lead to dehumification. This negative phenomenon is also exacerbated at the present time by global climate change, calling for increased rates of aridization. The complex of these causes leads to pronounced features of the phytocenosis composition of the region, which is highly lignified, depleted in protein components, which affected the structure of humic substances and determined a number of distinctive features of humus, unlike similar soils of other regions.
Asgerova D.B., Zalibekova M.Z., Beibolatova Z.D., Abdurashidova P.A., Batyrmurzaeva P.A., Zhelnakovova V.A. Patterns of Formation of the Soil Resources Diversity in Delta Ecosystems // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 36-43. | PDF
Researchers conducted in various regions are devoted to studying the resource potential of soils and substantiating the importance of soil resources in the production of food products. The main attention is paid to the spatial parameters of soils and the distribution of their ranges across continents, regions and the determination of the areas of existing soils per capita. It is generally recognized that the existing areas of soils are depleted and the land areas are limited in geometric shapes. To increase the biomass of plants used for the production of food products, it is necessary to study the primary tasks — to study the diversity of categories of soil resources, and, first of all, bioproducts. Inexhaustibility is characteristic of bioproduction resources, the potential of which is determined by the use of solar energy and the increase in photosynthetic activity of plants (FAR). The revealed regularities of the change in the threshold concentration of nutrients and the ratio of litter to increment make it possible, under the condition of using fertilizers, to form a phytocenosis, providing a dominant position to fodder plants with high productivity.
Keywords: soil potential, bioproduction resources, solar radiation, photosynthesis, soil formation, space limitations, diversity of resources, threshold concentration.
Nastinova G.E. Biological Bases of Introduction of Feed Plants in the Conditions of Drying Land of Kalmykia // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 44-50. | PDF
The current state of land use in the Republic of Kalmykia is considered. The increase of saline lands degraded by salinization and erosion is shown. The expansion of the species composition of fodder crops of introductions of amaranth with the purpose of increasing the productivity of degraded arable lands is substantiated. A great advantage of amaranth is high nutritional value and good digestibility of feed. Amaranth can be of great importance as a high-protein fodder crop and ensures the quality of feed production for the sustainable development of livestock in the Republic of Kalmykia.
Kendirbayeva A.Z., Shalpykov K.T., Rogova N.A., Dolotbakov A.K., Sadykova N.T. Present Condition of Medicinal Plants in the Northern Tian Shan (by the Example of Eastern Part of Northern Side of Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range and Chymyndy-Sai River Basin) // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 45-57. | PDF
In this work we give the complex geobotanical characteristics of the phytocenoses of the Northern Tian Shan, where some medicinal plants can be found. We estimate the current condition of the dominant plant species, and discuss such medicinal plants as Lobel’s Hellebore, Oregano Ordinary, Centriline sagebrush, Perforated Tutsan and Large Leaf Elecampane.
Shapovalova I.B. Techniques of Assessment of the Condition of Coastal Ornithological Communities on the Example of Internal Reservoirs of the Dry Steppe Zone in Southern Russia (Republic of Kalmykia) // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 58-65. | PDF
The technique of assessment of a condition of coastal ornithological complex is developed, which can be used on any artificial water bodies to detect violations in their work and operation. The article presents the data of some artificial reservoirs of the dry-steppe of the Southern of the European part of Russia (the Republic of Kalmykia). In the course of the work, the main influence factors (water factor) on the water body were identified, and the main indicators of the assessment (number and density) were determined. In the course of the conducted analysis of the coastal ornithocomplexes of the water bodies (dynamics of species diversity, abundance and density of birds in the marsh-near-water complex), their dependence on the water factor (drainage/flooding of a reservoir) was established, which reflections the principle of this technique. In connection with the intensification of anthropogenic impact considered changes of biodiversity of birds of some domestic water reservoirs of Kalmykia, such as Sarpa and Deed-Hulsun, during the period from 2008 to 2015 is considered. The ecological characteristics and the modern assessment of the state of their population in accordance with the developed methodology is given. Recommendations about management of their hydrological mode for the purpose of maintenance and preservation of populations of rare and vulnerable bird species are made.
Grinchenko O.S., Sviridova T.V., Ilyashenko E.I. South Migration Pathways and Wintering Places of Common Crane Pre-Migration Congregation of Dubna // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 66-74. | PDF
The transformation of arid ecosystems into agricultural lands around natural and artificial reservoirs led to the formation of big colonies on the migration pathways and wintering places of common cranes, nesting in the central European Russia. Marking of Dubna colony cranes with colorful rings made it possible to find birds wintering in Israel, in the Hula Valley. The results of watching those marked cranes allow us to find the key points of migration pathways to preserve them and detect if cranes of the Dubna colony use other places before their leaving in Moscow and neighboring regions, which is very important because the area of Dubna colony and the protective and feeding qualities of their habitat decrease.
Keywords: Common Crane, Dubna congregation, Hula Valley, Israel, migrations, marking.
Nurmagomedova P.M., Abasova M.M., Djanbolatova D.N. The Effect of Temperature Stress on the Enzymes of Protein Breakdown in Thedigestive System of Rodents // Arid ecosystems. 2018. V. 24. № 4 (77). P. 75-79. | PDF
We investigated the activity of enzymes of protein breakdown in the liver of rodents under temperature stress-induced hyperthermia (42°C) conditions, which are very common for hyper-arid regions of arid territories. Temperature stress were caused in a special chamber, which was leaking water of temperature, necessary to increase/reduce the temperature of the animal’s body. The activity of neutral proteases (ANP) of the liver was reduced in both cases, regardless of the body temperature. However, the mechanisms leading to decrease of ANP during hyperthermia and hypothermia can vary, as the rate of decrease of enzyme activity at hyperthermia is several times higher than at hypothermia. During hyperthermia ANP indices at every temperature of incubation were significantly reduced as compared with the control as well as with hypothermia, except for the incubation temperature of 10°C. Energy of activation amounted to 20 kJ/mol in the range of 42-10°С, and in the interval of 42-20°С was 63.7 kJ/mol. In the same temperature range 42-20°С during hypothermia EA was 2 times lower and amounted to 31.8 kJ/mol, almost without change compared with the control of 31.2 kJ/mol.
Keywords: temperature stress, hypothermia, hyperthermia, enzymatic activity, neutral proteases.