Pugacheva A.M., Belyaev A.I., Trubakova K.Yu., Romadina O.D. Regional Climate Changes in Dry Steppes and their Connection to Droughts // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 13-21. | PDF
The authors carried out an analysis of the regional climate for separate administrative districts of the Volgograd region for the first time. Differences were revealed based on temperature data and incoming precipitation. The study of the Volgograd region in the context of natural and climatic zones and subzones is of particular interest. This makes it possible to analyze multidirectional trends of climate change in a limited area. The open data of the climatic archive (VNIIGMI-MCD) on 5 reference weather stations of the region located in the dry steppes of chestnut soils were used in the work. The droughts were calculated on the basis of temperature and precipitation anomalies using Pedj Drought Index. Regional changes in the climate were identified in terms of the flow of precipitation during the seasons of active vegetation (spring, summer) according to long-term time series of data from registered meteorological stations. Regression analysis showed an increase in their reception in the spring and a decrease in the summer. Also, an increase in the number of droughts in the summer period was revealed with a decrease in aridity. This effect increases the intensity using Pedj Drought Index, the value of which reaches 3 units. A slight inverse correlation was found between the amount of incoming precipitation and the number of droughts in the summer in Volgograd, Surovikinsky, Ilovlinsky and Kamyshinsky districts and dry phenomena in the Surovikinsky district, as well as a direct moderate dependence on droughts in the Kamyshinsky district in summer. Areas with the maximum number of drought events have been identified, therefore, having the maximum risks of agricultural production. In Kamyshinsky district there were 21 drought events in spring, 115 in summer and in Surovikinsky district there were 4 drought events in spring, 70 in summer. In accordance with the results obtained, especially in the regions most susceptible to the influence of droughts, it is necessary to adjust the existing crop rotation schemes, the range of cultivated crops and a shift in emphasis towards conducting reclamation agriculture in these territories in order to eliminate the risks of agricultural production with the effective use of land resources. Regional climate studies are necessary for conducting effective agricultural activities. This makes it possible to objectively assess the situation with climate change at the level of administrative districts. The information obtained is necessary for the purpose of making managerial, risk-free decisions for agricultural production for agricultural regions.
Keywords: climate change, seasons of active vegetation, moisture availability during the seasons of active vegetation, droughts, aridity, dry steppe, chestnut soils.
Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to the research engineer of the Laboratory of Geoinformation Modeling and Mapping of Agroforestry Landscapes of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Vasilchenko for the cartographic material prepared for the article.
Funding.The work was carried out within the framework of the State Task of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Theoretical foundations of the functioning and natural-anthropogenic transformation of agroforestry complexes in transitional natural-geographical zones, patterns and forecast of their degradation and desertification based on geoinformation technologies, aerospace methods and mathematical cartographic modeling in modern conditions».:
Gubarev D.I., Levitskaya N.G., Derevyagin S.S. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SOIL DEGRADATION IN ARID ZONES OF THE VOLGA REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 1 (90). P. 20-27. | PDF
The aim of the research was to establish the impact of climate change on the processes of soil degradation and desertification in the arid zones of the Volga region. The material for the research was the observational data for 1971-2020 on 20 meteorological stations, as well as the results of soil-ecological and hydrogeological monitoring at research stations of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Organization «Federal Center of Agriculture Research of the South- East Region» in the prevailing soil and climatic zones on the territory of the Saratov region (forest-steppe, steppe, dry steppe and semi-desert). Identified signs accompanying aridization, desertification and land degradation differentiated by natural zones. In particular, the average annual air temperature increased, compared with the climatic norm, by 1.0-1.2°С, the greatest increase was observed in August (by 2.0-2.2°С). The average temperature of the soil surface during the warm period increased by 1.1-1.5°C. The risks of severe atmospheric droughts during the entire growing season increased throughout the entire territory, most noticeably in the semi-desert zone (from 55 to 82%). The amount of precipitation in the spring increased by 10-25%, and in the summer – decreased by 23-30%. The boundaries of the semi-desert zone have shifted to the north and northwest. The tendency of changes in the hydrological regime of zonal soils from non-leaching to periodically leaching in 20-40% of years is outlined. The values of the aridity indices of the territory, calculated for the period from 2001 to 2020, increased in comparison with the climatic norm for 1971-2000 by 3-6%. This is an indicator of an increase in climate aridity during its current warming. As a result, high rates of dehumification (decrease in the relative humus content by 21-35%) and changes in the structural state of the arable layer and grain size distribution (decrease in water-resistant aggregates >0.25 mm from 39 to 31.8% and the absolute content of physical clay by 7.5%). At the same time, there is an increase in the mineralization of groundwater from 2500 to 7000 mg/l, as well as an increase in the content of toxic salts in the soil solution. Thus, the content of Cl—, SO42— ions in the places of replenishment with groundwater increased from 0.27 to 0.56 mg/eq. and from 0.27 to 13.27 mg/eq. respectively. The cation values also increased: Ca2+ – from 0.30 to 4.41 mg/eq., Mg2+ – from 0.12 to 5.59 mg/eq., The sum of K+ and Na+ – from 0.09 to 0.28 mg/eq. In the lowered elements of the relief, the development of processes of local salinization and waterlogging is noted.
Financing. The article was made within the state assignment No. 0751-2019-0008 “To develop theoretical foundations for structuring agricultural landscapes, adapting them to climatic and geomorphometric features of the territory in order to preserve and optimize the use of land resources to obtain an economically reasonable level of quality agricultural products”.
Smagulov Ye.N. SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE IN AKMOLA REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 72-80.
Long-term dynamics of average air temperatures and annual precipitation amounts confirms the reality of climatic changes that began in the 70th of the last century in the Akmola region that is one of the leading agricultural regions of Kazakhstan. Cultivation of cereals, in particular, spring wheat, which is known to be extremely sensitive to climatic and weather conditions, prevails in the structure of agricultural production of the region. Based on the analysis of climatic indicators for 1931-2019, according to the available data of meteorological stations, the intraregional features of climate change, which led to an increase in the yield of grain crops, were identified. Correlation analysis established a high dependence of yield on the climatic conditions of the warm period. With the preservation of the current level of farming culture and the continued growth of average temperatures, a decrease in yield is expected in dry-steppe and southern steppe regions of the region. In the northern steppe regions, more intense trends in climatic indicators of the cold months favor an increase in yields and an expansion of agricultural production. Further development of agriculture in Akmola region requires taking into account intraregional differences in the intensity of climatic trends. In order to avoid the negative consequences of climate change, it is proposed to introduce adaptation technologies, to diversify agricultural production, to develop organic agriculture and actively to support agricultural producers.
Ganiyeva S.A., Gurbanov E.A. SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE UNDERGROUND PART OF THE EPHEMERAL-WORMWOOD SEMI-DESERT OF THE KURA-ARAZ LOWLAND IN MODERN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 1 (86). P. 54-61. | PDF
This article discusses the patterns of the dynamics of the underground part of the ephemeral-wormwood semi-desert of the Kura-Araz lowland in conditions of climate change. It was found that regardless of the plant development phase, season of the year and climate change conditions in different years, the ratio of productive and unproductive roots of plants remains at a certain level. The authors of the article determine the objects and methods of research that were conducted by them in different time periods in different climatic conditions. The authors provide figures and data (in tables) illustrating repeated experiments and observations. On the basis of scientifically grounded descriptions, the authors come to the conclusion that with the deepening into the soil, a decrease in the root mass in plant communities occurs with a pronounced regularity.
Zalibekov Z.G., Mamaev S.А., Grinchenko О.S., Kotenko М.Е., Мagomedov R.А. Priorities of the Development Strategy of the Worldwide Researches of Arid Lands // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 3 (84). P. 3-13. | PDF
The assessment of the global state of desertification highlights the need of information describing global extension of arid degradation and damage it causes. In the context of climate warming, which is noticed at the present time, all new regions will be exposed to drought, weakening the stability of the degraded lands. However the frequency of droughts increases in arid regions with high intensity. The efforts of scientists and practitioners have been reflected in the journal «Arid ecosystems» over the past 25-years, allowed us to obtain final information about the mechanisms of degradation of soils, vegetation and wildlife. Based on the scientific achievements in anthropogenic dynamics of desertification processes and resource potential of individual components of arid ecosystems, it is necessary to make a reasonable approach to the strategy and identify methods for implementing the presented concepts, programs and projects. Generalization of theoretical positions of productivity restoration, stability of a soil cover allowed to present fundamental research of the world arid lands as an independent concept of «green economy». Its main specific feature is the differentiation of human impact: natural and medical-biological. The last aspect includes the assessment of the social situation of people living in conditions of increasing droughts, dry spells and climate warming.
Keywords: soil degradation, new stage, research strategy, sustainable development, socio-economic priorities, «green economy», concept revision, desertification, climate change.