NATURE AND RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF OFFICINAL PLANTS’ FLORA OF CISCAUCASIA
Leonova N.B., Miklyaeva I.M. NATURE AND RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF OFFICINAL PLANTS’ FLORA OF CISCAUCASIA // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 49-56 | PDF
The study of natural resources of officinal plants of Ciscaucasia has been implemented with usage of the database developed by the authors for the Medico-Geographical Atlas of Russia “Healing Springs and Plants”. Officinal plants are permitted for medical use by the Ministry of Healthcare of Russia. Ciscaucasia flora of wild and cultivated in fields officinal plants consists of 153 species from 126 genera and 54 families with predominating Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Rosaceae. Most of officinal plants grow in forest and shrub communities, others are cultivated in plantations. By natural features Ciscaucasia may be divided into three parts: Western and Central with favorable conditions for plants growing, and Eastern part with less suitable conditions. Officinal plants have various pharmacological properties: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, hemostatic and others. Officinal plants are used for treatment of 14 principal classes of diseases (according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases ICD-10). The most frequent use is for curing diseases of the digestive system (more than 80 species), circulatory system (more than 40 species) and the respiratory system (40 species). Favorable nature conditions allow to cultivate in fields as aboriginal species and introduced officinal plants. In total, 62 plants species are cultivated in the Western and Central parts, including 20 aboriginal and 42 introduced. Large-scale stocking of healing plants results in reducing wild-growing plants populations. There are 13 officinal species included into the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and another 11 species included into the Regional books.
Keywords: taxonomic diversity, regional specifics, active substances, classes of diseases, rational use and conservation.