FUTURE CHANGES IN DRY CONDITIONS USING STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING MODEL (SDSM) IN THE WESTERN REGION OF GORGAN PLAIN, IRAN
Jamali Z., Heidarizadi Z. FUTURE CHANGES IN DRY CONDITIONS USING STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING MODEL (SDSM) IN THE WESTERN REGION OF GORGAN PLAIN, IRAN // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 4-12. | PDF
Climate indices are important tools to better understand the effects of climate change in future time periods. We collected the daily mean temperature and precipitation for the years 1961-1990 from Gorgan meteorological stations. Then, climate change scenarios were simulated for three future time intervals (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) under RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85 emission scenarios using CANESM2 model. The De Martonne Aridity Index and Emberger Index change were calculated for the future time periods. Our analysis showed that based on the monthly De Martonne Aridity Index value range, April to October are arid months while the remaining months are semi-arid for RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85 emission scenarios of CANESM2. This may be partly due to a decrease of precipitation with increasing temperature in April to October. Therefore, agricultural areas require irrigation during these times. During summer, humidity will decrease in all the three future time periods for RCP 26 and RCP 45 scenarios. The same is also true for RCP 85 scenario except June of 2020s during which humidity is expected to be constant. Overall, humidity is projected to increase in most of the months in the three future time periods for RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85 emission scenarios. The projected Aridity index of Emberger values shows a trend similar to the De Martonne Aridity Index. The R2 indicate a high correlation between De Martonne and Emberger indices proving similar trend of the two indices for changes in all the three future time periods.
Keywords: Aridity indices, greenhouse gases, IPCC AR5.
REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGES IN DRY STEPPES AND THEIR CONNECTION TO DROUGHTS
Pugacheva A.M., Belyaev A.I., Trubakova K.Yu., Romadina O.D. Regional Climate Changes in Dry Steppes and their Connection to Droughts // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 13-21. | PDF
The authors carried out an analysis of the regional climate for separate administrative districts of the Volgograd region for the first time. Differences were revealed based on temperature data and incoming precipitation. The study of the Volgograd region in the context of natural and climatic zones and subzones is of particular interest. This makes it possible to analyze multidirectional trends of climate change in a limited area. The open data of the climatic archive (VNIIGMI-MCD) on 5 reference weather stations of the region located in the dry steppes of chestnut soils were used in the work. The droughts were calculated on the basis of temperature and precipitation anomalies using Pedj Drought Index. Regional changes in the climate were identified in terms of the flow of precipitation during the seasons of active vegetation (spring, summer) according to long-term time series of data from registered meteorological stations. Regression analysis showed an increase in their reception in the spring and a decrease in the summer. Also, an increase in the number of droughts in the summer period was revealed with a decrease in aridity. This effect increases the intensity using Pedj Drought Index, the value of which reaches 3 units. A slight inverse correlation was found between the amount of incoming precipitation and the number of droughts in the summer in Volgograd, Surovikinsky, Ilovlinsky and Kamyshinsky districts and dry phenomena in the Surovikinsky district, as well as a direct moderate dependence on droughts in the Kamyshinsky district in summer. Areas with the maximum number of drought events have been identified, therefore, having the maximum risks of agricultural production. In Kamyshinsky district there were 21 drought events in spring, 115 in summer and in Surovikinsky district there were 4 drought events in spring, 70 in summer. In accordance with the results obtained, especially in the regions most susceptible to the influence of droughts, it is necessary to adjust the existing crop rotation schemes, the range of cultivated crops and a shift in emphasis towards conducting reclamation agriculture in these territories in order to eliminate the risks of agricultural production with the effective use of land resources. Regional climate studies are necessary for conducting effective agricultural activities. This makes it possible to objectively assess the situation with climate change at the level of administrative districts. The information obtained is necessary for the purpose of making managerial, risk-free decisions for agricultural production for agricultural regions.
Keywords: climate change, seasons of active vegetation, moisture availability during the seasons of active vegetation, droughts, aridity, dry steppe, chestnut soils.
Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to the research engineer of the Laboratory of Geoinformation Modeling and Mapping of Agroforestry Landscapes of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Vasilchenko for the cartographic material prepared for the article.
Funding.The work was carried out within the framework of the State Task of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Theoretical foundations of the functioning and natural-anthropogenic transformation of agroforestry complexes in transitional natural-geographical zones, patterns and forecast of their degradation and desertification based on geoinformation technologies, aerospace methods and mathematical cartographic modeling in modern conditions».:
IMPACT OF RIVER FLOW REGULATION, CLIMATIC AND HYDROLOGICAL CHANGES ON THE STATE OF FLOODPLAIN AND DELTA ECOSYSTEMS OF THE LOWER DON
Kuzmina Zh.V., Shinkarenko S.S., Solodovnikov D.A., Markov M.L. Impact of River Flow Regulation, Climatic and Hydrological Changes on the State of Floodplain and Delta Ecosystems of the Lower Don // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 22-36. | PDF
The terrestrial floodplain ecosystems of the Lower Don remain poorly explored even today, despite the fact that almost all of its lower reaches are regulated by water reservoirs and low-pressure hydroelectric facilities, which significantly change ecosystems and landscapes. Our studies were carried out according to our own methodology. The field part was carried out on 5 model ecological profiles, including a detailed study of vegetation and the location of surface groundwater at the model sites. The laboratory studies included the analysis of statistical hydrological materials and Landsat 2, 3, 5 and Sentinel-2 satellite images, as well as the identification of the ecosystems and landscapes state with the help of a two-stage method for assessing disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes under the watering regime change. We determined that the main factor that influences the change in the biotic components of the Lower Don ecosystems is the reduction in the fluctuations amplitude of water discharge (and levels) during the annual cycle due to the runoff regulation and climate change. The flooding frequency in the floodplain and delta territories decreased 4 times, along with a 3.5-fold decrease in spring flood discharges, and a 2.2-2.3-fold increase in low-water flows (during winter and summer-autumn periods). It caused a water level rise in the Don channel by 2.5 m and more, as well as a rise and stabilization of the groundwater level in the floodplain and delta of the Lower Don, which replaced the upper and middle floodplains communities with atypical invasive species. The natural forests of oak and elm on the upper floodplain have been replaced by green ash (Ffaxinus pennsylvanica) and ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) almost entirely. The willow forests (Salix alba), common for the middle floodplain, were replaced by the shrubs of desert false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) in the near-river floodplain, and with silver berry forests (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the central parts of the floodplain. The forb meadows of the middle floodplain were replaced by almost monodominant bushgrass (Calamagrostis epigeios) communities with thorny weeds, such as thistle (Cirsium) and cocklebur (Xanthium). The newly formed atypical floodplain communities have better chances to withstand a year-round high level of groundwater. When we evaluated the disturbance of ecosystems and landscapes water level on a 5-point scale from our own methodology, it showed that the least disturbed (2 out of 5) were the territories in the modern and old delta of the Don river, remote from any hydraulic structures. The remaining profiles (3-5) in the zone affected by the hydraulic structures, have an average disturbance level (3 out of 5), which does not yet require a change in the hydrological regime of the river, but suggests for the local hydro- and forest engineering measures to drain the land.
Keywords: Lower Don, change in water discharge, low water, high water, flooding, floodplain, groundwater level, floodplain ecosystems and landscapes, assessment of ecosystem disturbance.
Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank V.Yu. Georgievsky for his help with obtaining the hydrological data.
Funding. The development and analysis of hypsometric profiles, flooding levels and water surface mapping were funded by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 21-77-00018, “Patterns of the Dynamics of River Floodplains Landscapes in the Area of Insufficient Humidity under the Hydrological and Climatic Changes”; analysis of hydrological changes and the floodplain landscapes state are part of the theme No. FMWZ-2022-0002 of the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Research of Geoecological Processes in the Hydrological Land Systems, Formation of the Quality of Surface and Underground Waters, Problems of Water Resource Management and Water Use under the Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts”. The field studies are part of the theme No. FNFE-2022-003 of the Federal Scientific Center for Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Theoretical Basis of Functioning and Natural-anthropogenic Transformation of Agroforestry Landscape Complexes of the Transitional Natural-geographical Zones, Patterns and Forecasting of Their Degradation and Desertification According to the Geoinformation Technologies, Aerospace Methods and Mathematical-cartographic Modeling in Modern Conditions”. The hydrological data were provided as part of the civil law contract on 19/12/2018, No. 78/1-NIR/FCP-2018 for researches aimed to implement the federal special-purpose program “Development of the Water Management Complex of the Russian Federation in 2012-2020”, theme “Scientific Generalization of Hydrological Monitoring Data for a Scientific Reference Book of the Main Hydrological Characteristics of Water Bodies in the Don River Basin”.
WATER REGIME TYPES OF THE SAND MASSIFS OF THE DON RIVER
Kulik A.K., Balkushkin R.N. WATER REGIME TYPES OF THE SAND MASSIFS OF THE DON RIVER // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 37-45. | PDF
Issues related to the study of soil-hydrological features of sandy massifs become relevant in conditions of arid climate and insufficient moisture for plants. The purpose of the research is to study the types of the Don River sandy massifs water regime. In the period from 2003 to 2021, route and stationary (laying of water-regime sites) studies were carried out on the territory of the sandy massifs of the Don River and its tributaries. Laboratory work was carried out at the hydrological complex of the FSC of Agroecology RAS, which includes 8 large-sized lysimeters and 18 vegetation sites. During the year, infiltration on open sands averages 70% of the total amount of precipitation. The greatest runoff to groundwater is observed on the Upper Don sandy massifs. According to lysimetric studies, the average annual intensity of intra-soil runoff, under conditions of fallow, is maximum on sandy soils and averages 0.73 mm/day, on sandy loam – 0.65 mm/day, on light loam — 0.37 mm/day. At the same time, in the second half of the year sandy loam soils are able to discharge more water into the groundwater than sandy and loamy soils. In most cases, the non-washing type of water regime is observed on the third terrace of sandy massifs with deep groundwater (>8 m) and on heavier soils in granulometric composition. In areas with ground water that is accessible to the stand roots, there is a daily pulsation with a general decrease in the level, since the night water intake does not compensate for the transpiration flow. Seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level on the Don sands average 40-60 cm, but can reach 90 cm.
Keywords: sand massifs, water regime, soil-hydrological constants, intra-soil runoff, lysimeters.
Funding.The work was carried out within the framework of the state task FNFE-2022-0011 «Development of a new methodology for optimal management of biological resources in agricultural landscapes of the arid zone of the Russian Federation using system-dynamic modeling of soil-hydrological processes, a comprehensive assessment of the impact of climate change and anthropogenic loads on agrobiological potential and forest conditions».
DIFFERENTIATION OF SOIL PROCESSES BY STAGES OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS OF THE ARID CLIMATE ZONE
UDC 631.48; 581.54
Alichaev M.M., Sultanova M.G., Musalaeva P.D. DIFFERENTIATION OF SOIL PROCESSES BY STAGES OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS OF THE ARID CLIMATE ZONE // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 46-54. | PDF
The modern processes of manifestation of the stages of desertification and arid degradation and the dynamics of their development depending on soil fertility in arid conditions are considered on the example of the regions of the Western Caspian – the Tersko-Kuma lowland and the Terek Delta. The development of degradation processes proceeds in two stages, fundamentally different in content and scale of territorial distribution.
The first stage – natural degradation — originates from the time of the development of soil formation processes in the Holocene as one of the indispensable elements of the functioning of living organisms on the Earth’s surface. The natural dynamics of degradation processes proceeds with the formation of an equilibrium state of soil formation with the formation of certain types of soils of a full-profile structure. Depending on the conditions of soil formation characteristic of the degradation direction, such as salinization, pollution, salinity of soils at different stages of their development, salt marshes, salt flats, sandy and clay deserts are formed. The development of these soil properties in natural conditions continues at the present time, their evolution proceeds, starting in the Holocene epoch (Akaev, 1996).
On the second stage the dynamics of arid degradation and desertification is caused by anthropogenic impact, radically different from the indicators of natural degradation. As a result of the increased anthropogenic impact, the natural state of the soil cover is replaced by an unstable secondary one in artificial conditions. The measures contributing to the formation of new directions of soil formation include: the expansion of irrigated land areas in the Terek Delta, the Tersko-Kuma lowland and in other regions, the vulnerability of developed soils to natural salinization phenomena, wind erosion and degradation.
Keywords: stages of soil origination, Holocene differentiation, anthropogenic differentiation, fertility, halophytes, arid degradation, geological time periods, historical time periods.
ABOUT THE REGULARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOIL COVER OF THE PODGORNY-PRIMORYE PLAINS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN SEA
Kotenko M.E., Asgerova D.B., Galimova U.M. ABOUT THE REGULARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOIL COVER OF THE PODGORNY-PRIMORYE PLAINS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN SEA // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 55-60. | PDF
The Podgorny-Primorye plains are widespread in arid regions of the world. They are forming in the coastal strip, where the mountains come close to the seashore. Unlike other plains, they consist of three specific elements of the foothill plain: piedmont plain, coastal plain, or coast, and the continental part of the region. In these landscape components, soils and vegetation cover differ significantly, changing the structure of the soil cover.
Keywords: seashore, arid soils, piedmont plain, desertification, salt migration, soil salinization, indicator.
THE USE OF MULTI-TEMPORAL HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES TO SOIL SALINITY ASSESSMENT IN THE SOLONETZIC COMPLEX (REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA)
Prokopyeva K.O. THE USE OF MULTI-TEMPORAL HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES TO SOIL SALINITY ASSESSMENT IN THE SOLONETZIC COMPLEX (REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA) // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 61-74. | PDF
Remote assessment of soil salinity of natural solonetzic complexes, which are characterized by subsurface soil salinity, is a challenging task. Nevertheless, research in this area is promising, as salinity is a striking limiting factor affecting vegetation growth, and thus manifests itself on the spectral characteristics of the land surface. In this paper, an analysis of multi-temporal high-resolution satellite images compared with detailed ground data on soil salinity was carried out using the principal component method and multiple linear regression. Images from QuickBird (2007) and SuperView-1 (2021) satellites were used as remote sensing data with a spatial resolution of 2 m. Salinity was estimated by specific electrical conductivity (EC) in a water suspension of 1:5. Ground surveys were carried out in 2011 and 2021. It was found out that there were no significant changes in soil salinity in the key area during the 10-year period, but there were changes in vegetation conditions, which are reflected in the NDVI vegetation index maps. The principal components were calculated from multi-temporal high-resolution satellite images and it was concluded that the first three components explain almost 97% of the total image variability. Models based on multiple linear regression analysis describe well the soil salinity (R2 of the model is 0.68, 0.77, 0.83 for layers 0-30, 0-50, 0-100 cm, respectively). The constructed models based on remote sensing data have shown good agreement when tested with the control sample (R2 between predicted and measured EC values is 0.70, 0.87, 0.83 for layers 0-30, 0-50, 0-100 cm, respectively). The proposed models will be useful for estimation of salinity of soils of solonetzic complex of dry steppe from high resolution satellite images.
Keywords: QuickBird, SuperView-1, assessment of soil salinity, solonetzic complexes, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), NDVI, Caspian Lowland.
Acknowledgement. The author expresses gratitude for the help in the work of M.V. Konyushkova, I.P. Minkeev, A.F. Novikova, M.B. Shadrina, S.S. Ulanova, I.N. Semenkov, A.A. Kontoboitseva, Isinufen, N.M. Tserenov, U.Y. Ulumdjiev.
ECOSYSTEM AND BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH-EAST ALTAI–TUVA DESERT-STEPPE OROBIOME
Ogureeva G.N., Bocharnikov M.V. ECOSYSTEM AND BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH-EAST ALTAI–TUVA DESERT-STEPPE OROBIOME // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 75-82. | PDF
Based on the biome concept of ecosystem diversity and the ecological-geographical approach to the analysis of biodiversity, a regional assessment of the unique South-East Altai-Tuva orobiome for Russia is given. Orobiome is considered as a strong unit for inventory and analysis of ecosystem and biotic diversity of mountain territories. The characteristic of bioclimatic indicators characterizing the originality of the desert-steppe orobiome of the Subarid class of belt types and its high-altitude belts is given. The altitudinal-belt structure of the vegetation cover is revealed, according to which the spatial differentiation of flora, plant communities, and ecosystems are formed. A quantitative assessment of the floristic (about 1400 species of vascular plants) and phytocenotic diversity by belts (nival, wasteland-tundra, forest-steppe, steppebelts) is iven. The features of the spatial structure of the diversity of communities in the conditions of the mountainous territory are revealed.
Keywords: biodiversity, mountain biome, ecosystem, biota, altitude-belt spectrum.
Funding. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task on the topic «Spatio-temporal organization of ecosystems in the conditions of environmental changes» of Moscow State University and on the basis of the MWG Herbarium (created with the support of the Moscow University Development Program).
ECOLOGICAL-PHYTOCENOTIC CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HALOCNEMETA STROBILACEI FORMATION ON THE CASPIAN LOWLAND
Goryaev I.A., Safronova I.N. ECOLOGICAL-PHYTOCENOTIC CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HALOCNEMETA STROBILACEI FORMATION ON THE CASPIAN LOWLAND // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 83-90. | PDF
Halocnemeta strobilacei is represented by 4 classes of associations and 14 associations on the Caspian lowland within European Russia.Сommunities of Halocnemeta strobilacei are common in desert and steppe zones, in which they differ in species composition and occupied area.
The most common are the cenoses of Halocnemeta strobilacei pura association class. Communities of two classes of associations are characteristic: Halocnemeta strobilacei halosuffruticulosa and Halocnemeta strobilacei annuae. It is rare to find communities of another class of associations Halocnemetum strobilacei graminosa. Monodominant communities of Halocnemeta strobilacei are confined to soils with a high content of chlorine ions (Cl—). In soils under bidominant cenoses, in addition to chlorine ions (Cl—), natrium ions (Na+) and sulfate ions (SO42-) have a high content.
Keywords: communities, Halocnemeta strobilacei, dwarf semishrubs, annuals, classification scheme, Caspian lowland.
Funding.The work was carried out on the planned topic of the Laboratory of General Geobotany of the BIN RAS «Vegetation of European Russia and Northern Asia: diversity, dynamics, principles of organization» No. 121032500047-1 and under the research agreement No. 1/71 dated 30.04.2021 of the BIN RAS with the World Wildlife Fund «Assessment of saiga habitats of the Northwestern Caspian Sea».
STATE OF WILD TULIPS OF THE NORTHERN MACROSLOPE OF THE KYRGYZ ALA-TOO IN RELATION TO THE PROBLEM OF THEIR DISAPPEARANCE
UDC 582.572.226(575.2) (04)
Kendirbaeva A.Zh., Shalpykov K.T., Rogova N.A., Dolotbakov A.K., Chyngyz U.-U. STATE OF WILD TULIPS OF THE NORTHERN MACROSLOPE OF THE KYRGYZ ALA-TOO IN RELATION TO THE PROBLEM OF THEIR DISAPPEARANCE // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 91-103. | PDF
Kyrgyzstan is very rich in bulbous plants. In general, ephemeroids in Kyrgyzstan are widespread and belong to different taxa (families, tribes, and genera). The article discusses the current state of tulips on the northern macroslope of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too. Strong polymorphism, frequent hybridizations, especially among tulips, as well as change in the color of flowers during drying of the herbarium make scientific identification of individual species quite difficult. The article presents results of initial research on the annual conservation regime of the tulip population in the eastern region of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too. According to the obtained data, tulips are responsive to the conservation regime.
Vegetation monitoring was carried out on test plots, which were established in 2019, as well as on control plots. All plots are of the same dimension (10 x 10 m2). 5 test plots, which were fenced with chain-link mesh to protect against livestock, were allocated for semi-stationary monitoring. To analyze comparative characteristics and identify the stage of demutation of test plots, monitoring of 10 control plots was carried out in identical adjacent territories.
The number of wild tulips in the test plots fenced a year ago is much higher than in the control plots. The conservation regime for one year had a positive effect on the vegetation cover of the mid-mountain belt. In a short period of time, the demutation stage is observed for the entire floristic composition of the communities. The short-term (1-year) conservation regime had a positive effect on the floristic composition of the communities, the projective cover of the herbage, the increase in the abundance of wild tulips, and contributed to the accumulation of steppe mat.
Keywords: ephemeroids, tulip, subendemics, anthropogenic impact, test plot, control plot, fruit-bearing specimens, fencing, demutation, total projective cover.
Funding: All activities in the field were carried out as part of the «Protection of wild tulips and support of pasture communities in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan» project. The work was carried out jointly with partner organizations: the branch of «Fauna and Flora International» in the Kyrgyz Republic, the «Bioresurs» Public Foundation, and the «Association of Forest and Land Users of Kyrgyzstan,» with financial support from the Darwin Initiative program of the UK Government.