PERFORMANCE FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN ARID AREAS
Rybka K.Y., Shchegolkova N.M. PERFORMANCE FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN ARID AREAS // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 103-110.
The article discusses the features of wastewater treatment in arid regions using constructed wetlands (CWs) – shallow artificial streams, planted with higher aquatic vegetation. It is known that due to the increased temperature, the efficiency of arid CWs is higher in some parameters compared to similar treatment systems in other climatic zones. However, arid wetlands have a number of features that have not yet been covered in the scientific literature. In this article, arid CWs are considered from two positions – from the point of view of the water budget of the system and the energy balance. It is shown that evapotranspiration becomes the main expenditure item of the water balance of CWs under arid conditions, which in some cases accounts for up to 70% of the total water loss in wetlands. At the same time, evapotranspiration is the main cooling mechanism for arid CWs. In conclusion, recommendations are given for the design of constructed wetlands in areas with a hot dry climate, aimed primarily at saving water resources. These include: the use of subsurface wetlands with vertical flow and artificial aeration, planting plants with minimal transpiration and the use of submerged macrophytes, planting trees around the perimeter of a wetland for shading and reducing wind speed, etc.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, arid constructed wetlands, arid areas, wetland water budget, wetland energy balance.
Funding. This work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Project No. 18-29-25027 “Influence of Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities on the Purification Efficiency of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Environments in Various Treatment Facilities”, Theme No. 0147-2019-0004 (state registration No. АААА-А19-119040990079-3) “ Development of Scientific and Technological Basis for Integrated Water Resources Management and Protection of Water Bodies on the Territory of the Russian Federation” within the state assignment of Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.