HUMUS STATUS OF SOILS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF THE EARLY IRON AGE (REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN)
Kungurtsev A.J., Suleymanov R., Ovsyannikov V.V., Savelyev N.S., Abakumov E.V., Asylbaev I.G. HUMUS STATUS OF SOILS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF THE EARLY IRON AGE (REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN) // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 4 (88). P. 59-69. | PDF
The organic matter of modern and buried humus horizons of soils has been studied on the example of the archaeological monuments Akberdinskoe-II, Shipovskoe and Okhlebininskoe-II settlement (Kara-Abyz culture of the early Iron Age of the IV century BC — the turn of the II-I centuries BC). Archaeological sites are located on the territory of the Iglinsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan within the forest-steppe zone. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of soils are determined. Additionally, methods of spectrophotometry and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used. On the territory of archaeological sites, dark gray forest soils of loamy granulometric composition are common. The thickness of the daytime and buried humus horizons of soils is 11-30 cm . Organic matter is represented by fulvate-humate, humate and humate-fulvate types of humus. The group composition is dominated by humic acids, and among the fractions of humic acids – the fraction of GC-2. The results of spectrophotometry showed a more mature state of the aromatic part of humic acid molecules for buried humus horizons compared to modern humus horizons. Humic acid molecules of the organic matter of modern humus horizons, according to the results of 13C NMR spectroscopy, correspond to the conditions of the chernozem type of soil formation. In general, the modern intensification of climate aridization in the forest-steppe zone of the Republic of Bashkortostan originates, according to archaeologists, from the middle of the IV century BC and the turn of the II-I centuries BC In the soil cover of archaeological sites at the time of observation of the change in the type of soil formation was not found.
Keywords: organic matter, archaeological monument, buried soils, Kara-Abyz culture, forest-steppe.
Funding. This research was carried out within the state assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences) No. 075-00326-19-00, Theme “Studying the Risks of Soils Desertification in the Steppe Zone of the South Ural Region: Factors, Trends and Development of Ways to Reduce Its Negative Consequences” No. AAAA-A18-118022190102-3; and supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Project No. 17-11-02001-OGN “Cultural and Historical Processes and Changes of the Natural and Climatic Conditions during the Early Iron Age in the Forest-Steppe Territory of Aral Region” (Institute of History, Language and Literature of Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The humic acids were studied in the Scientific Park of Saint Petersburg State University (“Magnetic-Resonance Research Methods” and “Methods for Analysis of Matter Composition” resource centers).