SOILS OF ARID REGIONS OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA IN THE BASIC CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS OF THE WORLD
Zalibekov Z.G., Mamaev S.A., Biarslanov A.B., Kurbanismailova A.S. SOILS OF ARID REGIONS OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA IN THE BASIC CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS OF THE WORLD // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 1 (90). P. 42-52. | PDF
Received April 24, 2020. After revision October 14, 2020. Accepted August 16, 2021.
Soil cartographic studies and preparation of soil maps are carried out using classification and diagnostics of soils, as well as various methodological approaches. The most acceptable in modern conditions are «Classification and diagnostics of soils of Russia» (2004), the main difference of which is the use of the principles of substantive genetic classification developed by V.M. Friedland. To further develop this classification, an attempt has been made to determine the classification position and properties of arid soils subjected to desertification, aridization. An important criterion determining the acceptability of the new approach is the allocation of supertype subdivisions (trunks – synlithogenic, postlithogenic organomineral soils) characteristic of highly degraded soils in the foci of desertification. Desertification, as a natural-anthropogenic process, leads to the loss of humus horizons and the emergence of a soil-forming geological rock on the surface. At the same time, the properties of soils at the highest supertype level change with the transition of postlitogenic to synlitogenic organomineral soils.
Taking into account the global nature of the manifestation of desertification, the control of changes is a prerequisite for determining the place of arid soils of the southern regions of Russia in the basic classification of soils of the world. The proposed article provides a theoretical justification for the classification differences allocated to supplement with diagnostics, a nomenclature of properties with an appropriate sequence.
Keywords: basic classification, substantive genetic classification, arid soils, synlithogenic variety, postlithogenic variety, halomorphic desertification, ferrallite formations, erosion, salinization, dehumification.
Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the State Assignment of the Institute of Geology of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Landscape-geochemical zoning of the Caspian lowland”, Section 1, No. AAA-A117-117021310199-9 “Development of methodological foundations for studying the humus state and soil salinization for the purpose of landscape-geochemical zoning of arid territories”, Topic 3, No. AAAAA-A17-117021310203-3 “Ecological and geochemical features of groundwater of the North-Eastern Caucasus (Dagestan). Natural and anthropogenic pollution factors”.