THE CURRENT STATE OF THE SALSOLA ARBUSCULIFORMIS, ANABASIS SALSA PASTURES OF KARAKALPAK USTURT (UZBEKISTAN)
UDC 581.5 (575.13)
Rakhimova N.K., Rakhimova T. THE CURRENT STATE OF THE SALSOLA ARBUSCULIFORMIS, ANABASIS SALSA PASTURES OF KARAKALPAK USTURT (UZBEKISTAN) // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 3 (92). P. 61-71. | PDF
The article is devoted to the study of the current state of pastures of the Chernoboyalyshev-Biyurgun (Anabasis salsa, Salsola arbusculiformis) type, common in the territory of Karakalpak Ustyurt (Uzbekistan). The results of field studies of the species composition and productivity of plant communities with the dominance of Salsola arbusculiformis are presented and the reasons for the difference between the obtained data and the data of Karakalpak researchers of the 1970s are discussed. These pastures cover half of the northern and eastern parts of the territory (1,291,414 ha) and are distributed on gravelly, loamy, takyr-alkaline, gypsum soils of the Karakalpak Ustyurt, which includes 4 pasture varieties: shrub-white-earth wormwood-black boletus (Salsola arbusculiformis, Artemisia terrae- albae, Atraphaxis spinosa, Convolvulus fruticosus) with the participation of zaisan saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron); white-earth sagebrush-black balsam (Salsola arbusculiformis, Artemisia terrae-albae): a) with the participation of Convolvulus fruticosus, Rheum tataricum, Stipa richteriana; b) with the participation of Anabasis brachiata; biyurgun-black balsam (Salsola arbusculiformis, Anabasis salsa) with zaisan saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron) and shrubs (Salsola arbusculiformis, Atraphaxis spinosa, Convolvulus fruticosus). The area of the studied pasture varieties, the nature of the soil cover, the percentage of projective cover, landscape plant species, their placement, forage yield and recommended seasonality of use were determined. The composition of the vegetation remains monotonous due to complexes of boyalyshev, biyurgun and wormwood communities. Due to the lack of moisture in the year of observation (2021), the dominant species (Salsola arbusculiformis, Artemisia terrae-albae) showed a weak annual growth (up to 1 cm) and they were in a depressed state. The seasonal forage yield of pastures of the Salsola arbusculiformis, Anabasis salsa pastures ranges from 0.5 to 3.5 q/ha, the maximum yield occurs in the autumn period. According to estimates of the yield of the eatable part (c/ha), the studied pasture varieties are recommended to be used as an autumn-winter pasture.
Keywords: Republic of Karakalpakstan, Ustyurt, desertification, pasture difference, degradation, vegetation cover, productivity.
Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of the State Program (PFI-5) «Assessment of the current state of vegetation cover and pasture resources of the Republic of Karakalpakstan».