Borisov A.V., Idrisov I.A., Pinskoy V.N., Potapova A., Bukhonov A.V., Yeltsov M.V. THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL COVER AND SOIL PROPERTIES OF DRY STEPPE PASTURES UNDER DIFFERENT GRAZING INTENSITY // Arid Ecosystems. 2023. Vol. 29. № 3 (96). P. 131-140. | PDF
The features of the soil cover in different parts of the pasture in the conditions of a dissected relief were carried out. The object of the study was an average sheep farm in the dry steppe zone in the Manych river basin. It has been established that, depending on the intensity of grazing, several types of soil cover can be distinguished on the pasture. In turn, the intensity of grazing is determined by the composition of the vegetation. As a result, the heterogeneity of the soil cover is due to the distance from the farm, as well as the peculiarities of the vegetation cover in different parts of the pasture. The greatest pasture load occurs in areas where the soil cover has a high proportion of Solonetzes with cereal-wormwood plant associations. A tendency towards a reduction in the thickness of the AJ and SEL horizons of Kastanozems and Solonetzes was noted as the pasture load intensified. In areas with feather grass, the share of Solonetzes in the soil cover is much lower, and Kastanzems predominate. As the pasture load increases, the share of Kastanozems may decrease and the area of Solonetzes may expand.
Financing. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 22-68-00010 “Paleoecology and Paleoeconomics of the Ancient Population of Crimea: Economic Models in Changing Natural Conditions and the Contribution of Ancient Anthropogenic Activity to the Formation of the Modern Soil Cover of the Region”.
Vorobyeva I.B. CHANGE OF STOCKS OF MOBILE SUBSTANCE AND THERMAL REGIME OF NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGED SOILS OF THE NAZAROVSKY FOREST-STEPPE // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 2 (91). P. 40-50. | PDF
The article presents the results of studies on changes in the content and stocks of water-soluble forms of calcium, magnesium, organic and mineral carbon and moisture in natural and anthropogenically modified soils, as well as changes in the temperature of natural soils in different locations. The relevance of the study is due to the need to analyze the changes in the studied parameters under the conditions of short-term climate changes in the insular forest-steppe of the Nazarovsky depression. Generally accepted methods were used in the research: landscape-geochemical, comparative-analytical, comparative-geographical and statistical methods. It has been established that the moisture stocks in the meadow- swamp soil are maximum, in the meadow-leached chernozem soil they are minimal, and in the ordinary meadow chernozem and its anthropogenic modification – fallow – the values are close, which is connected with their position in the relief and the hydrothermal regime. It was revealed experimentally («in situ») that the temperature curve is steeper in ordinary meadow chernozem, freezing temperatures are lower, and the period with negative temperatures is longer than in meadow-swamp soil. New knowledge was obtained on changes in the reserves of water-soluble forms of calcium, magnesium, organic and mineral carbon, moisture content and fluctuations in climatic parameters (air temperature and precipitation amounts). Intra-annual changes in the temperature of natural soils («in situ») of the insular forest-steppe have been established for a more complete understanding of the dynamics of natural processes, as well as the use of the results obtained in further research on the study of the insular forest-steppe in a changing climate.
Keywords: natural, anthropogenic, soils, temperature, moisture, stocks, organic and mineral carbon.
Financing. The work was carried out within the State task of the IG SB RAS: (No. FM-2021-0002), the state registration number of the topic: AAAAA-A21-121012190055-7 «Spatial and temporal patterns of the material state of the landscapes of Siberia in changing environmental conditions».
Dedova E.B., Gol’dvarg B.А., Tsagan-Mandzhiev N.L. LAND DEGRADATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA: PROBLEMS AND WAYS TO RECOVER // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 63-71. | PDF
The Republic of Kalmykia is located in the European part of the arid zone of the Russian Federation, where one of the serious environmental and socio-economic problem is the desertification of a significant part (up to 80 %) of its territory. So, from 6264 thousand hectares of agricultural lands 77.9 % is subjected to various types of degradation, from them waterlogged-93.96 thousand hectares, eroded-526.18 thousand hectares, deflated-1753.92 thousand hectares, salinized-2505.6 thousand hectares. The highest indices of deflationary degradation are observed in the South-Eastern regions of Kalmykia (IDD 31.7-71.1 points), which is due to natural (increased aridity of the climate) and anthropogenic (excessive pasture load) factors. The conceptual model reflecting the mechanism of meliorative influence on the degradation processes proceeding on the lands of agricultural use under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is developed. An agrobiological method of phytomelioration of degraded lands on open sand massifs is proposed, including planting of leafless juzgun (Calligonum aphyllum (Pall.) Gurke.), giant hair (Leymus racemosus Lam. Tzvel.), prostrate rod (Bassia prostrata (L.) A. J. Scott), grey teresken (Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst.) and Siberian Wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum (Willd.) P. Beav.). The complexes of reclamation measures are developed. They are differentiated for different categories of agricultural lands, providing the creation of optimal conditions for increasing the natural resource potential of arid ecosystems and aimed at preventing desertification, leveling the complexity of the soil cover, reducing natural and anthropogenic salinity, salinity and the risk of other negative processes.
Borisov A.V., Alekseyev A.O. TIME AND REASONS OF SOLONETZ PROCESS’ GENESIS IN THE SOILS OF THE DESERTED STEPPES IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PART OF EAST EUROPEAN PLAIN // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 1 (82). P. 33-42 . | PDF
In this article we study the time frame and role of the anthropogenic factor in the genesis of the solonetz process in the soils of the deserted steppes in the southeastern part of East European Plain. Basing on the research of the soils of different ages buried under the barrows of Bronze Age and Middle Ages (6200-700 years ago) in the boundaries of Sal-Manych ridge, we found out that before the 3rd millennium BC those soils had no signs of solonetz process on macro level. First solonetz in the region started to form 4800-4700 years ago, which chronologically matches the beginning of climate aridization intensification. During that period the deserted steppes were actively inhabited by cattlemen, who were breeding small cattle, which in its turn caused the pressure on land and steppe ecosystems. In this article we study the possible cause and effect relations in “climate – agricultural” model – solonetz process” system.