Georgiadi A.G., Kashutina E.A. EXTREME DROUGHTS HYDROCLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OBSERVED ON THE RUSSIAN PLAIN SINCE 1970’s // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 3-11 | PDF
Based on long-term data on the average monthly air temperature, the amount of precipitation, the G.T. Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient of humidification and the statistical curves of their spatial distribution the features of the extreme droughts characteristics dynamics observed in the Russian Plain since the 1970s are revealed.
Keywords: modern global warming, extreme droughts, boundaries of areas of extreme droughts, statistical curves of spatial distribution, dynamics of hydroclimatic characteristics during extreme droughts.
Bazha S.N., Andreev A.V., Bogdanov E.A., Danzhalova E.V., Drobyshev Yu.I., Petukhov I.A., Rupyshev Yu.A., Ubugunova V.I., Khadbaatar S., Tsyrempilov E.G. CAUSE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS OF THE ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION OF THE BAIKAL BASIN BASED ON LONG-TERM MONITORING IN THE MODEL REFERENCE NETWORK // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 26-32 | PDF
The article outlines the main causes and consequences of the destabilization of ecosystems in the Lake Baikal basin, identified through long-term monitoring. The monitoring is based on a network of model polygons and key sites, established in zones of increased ecological tension, where large-scale mapping is carried out and a complex of landscape and soil-geobotanical studies is carried out. The degree of disturbance of the natural environment of the region is assessed, the main factors of degradation are identified and the nature of degradation processes is established.
Key words: monitoring, ecological mapping, ecosystem degradation, Baikal basin.
Adamova R.M., Kaziev Mr.A. ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION PROTECTIVE FOREST STANDS IN ARID REGIONS // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 26-32 | PDF
Ecological and biological aspects of creating protective forest stands are considered. The results of the research can serve as a basis for the development of measures for the rational use of land resources and the creation of protective forest plantations in arid conditions. An assessment of the introduction resources of dendroflora for the creation of protective forest stands is given and the mycotrophy of species is studied for the first time to determine the possibilities of their use in protective forest stands. Criteria that determine the mycotrophy of woody plants and diagnostics of their resistance make it possible to assess the effectiveness of work on the introduction and reproduction of tree species, and can also be used in the development of a general program for the restoration of natural forest phytocenoses.
Keywords: protective forest stands, arid territories, introduction, reforestation, mycorrhiza, succession.
Anwar M.M., Fayyaz F., Aziz A., Mahmood M.R. SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL ECONOMIC DEMAND OF URBAN PARKS IN GUJRAT CITY, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 33-40 | PDF
The study is projected to analyze a susceptible issue in Gujrat city Pakistan. Green spaces are being replaced by infrastructure in the city, and present green spaces and parks faces the challenges, including infrastructure development, lack of planning and budget. However, current land use planning gave a jerk to the city’s economy in the long run. Therefore, the strong need exists to analyze this issue to achieve the sustainable goals. It has been analyzed that resort places/parks are situated around the premises of the city and makes it difficult for the middle class to access. The results show that parks enhance social interaction between the residents of the area, the concerning authorities should manage budgetary constraints for green spaces and parks to improve overall picture of the city’s planning. The study suggested that the addition of green spaces is essential to improved urban growth of economy, agriculture and environmental engagement of people within the city. The government should endorse the idea of reserving the urban green places to improve the green ecology in the sight of the best interests of the area.
Keywords: Environmental engagement, Green spaces and parks, Infrastructure development, Land use planning, Sustainable goals.
Mironova E.E. GIS MODELING OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE OF MEDITERRANEAN CITIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF URBANIZED ECOSYSTEMS // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 41-48 | PDF
The article discusses methodological approaches to the assessment of the spatial configuration and structure of green spaces and fragments of the natural landscape (a case of Malaga, Spain). Modern GIS modeling techniques are applied to assess Malaga’s green infrastructure in terms of configuration, fragmentation, and spatial structure of green spaces (using GuidosToolBox software). The method of Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) focuses on the geometry and connectivity of the components based on the raster image of the study area, and can automatically identify ecological corridors of different sizes, as well as further rank them within the network, thereby making it possible to assess the connectivity of the natural framework of the city. As a result of MSPA, the main cores and islands of green infrastructure, as well as ecological corridors are identified; the assessment of the connectivity and fragmentation of green spaces is made. The results obtained can be used as an example of a study to determine the priority areas of the green infrastructure network, which are simultaneously important both for the conservation of biodiversity and for the development of recreational and aesthetic qualities of green spaces.
Keywords: urban green infrastructure, GIS modeling, connectivity, fragmentation of green areas, MSPA.
Leonova N.B., Miklyaeva I.M. NATURE AND RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF OFFICINAL PLANTS’ FLORA OF CISCAUCASIA // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 49-56 | PDF
The study of natural resources of officinal plants of Ciscaucasia has been implemented with usage of the database developed by the authors for the Medico-Geographical Atlas of Russia “Healing Springs and Plants”. Officinal plants are permitted for medical use by the Ministry of Healthcare of Russia. Ciscaucasia flora of wild and cultivated in fields officinal plants consists of 153 species from 126 genera and 54 families with predominating Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Rosaceae. Most of officinal plants grow in forest and shrub communities, others are cultivated in plantations. By natural features Ciscaucasia may be divided into three parts: Western and Central with favorable conditions for plants growing, and Eastern part with less suitable conditions. Officinal plants have various pharmacological properties: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, hemostatic and others. Officinal plants are used for treatment of 14 principal classes of diseases (according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases ICD-10). The most frequent use is for curing diseases of the digestive system (more than 80 species), circulatory system (more than 40 species) and the respiratory system (40 species). Favorable nature conditions allow to cultivate in fields as aboriginal species and introduced officinal plants. In total, 62 plants species are cultivated in the Western and Central parts, including 20 aboriginal and 42 introduced. Large-scale stocking of healing plants results in reducing wild-growing plants populations. There are 13 officinal species included into the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and another 11 species included into the Regional books.
Keywords: taxonomic diversity, regional specifics, active substances, classes of diseases, rational use and conservation.
Karimova T.Yu., Lushchekina A.A., Neronov V.M. CURRENT STATUS AND RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SAIGA POPULATIONS INHABITING TERRITORY OF RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 57-67 | PDF
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the number of saigas (Saiga tatarica tatarica L., 1766) has sharply decreased twice as a result of human activity. But if for the first time the number of all four populations – the North-West Pre-Caspian, Ustyurt, Volga-Ural and Betpakdala – has recovered and by the 70-80s of last century there were more than 1 million heads, then the second time (since the beginning of the 21st century) an increase in the number of these ungulates was noted only for two populations – the Volga-Ural and Betpakdala. The aim of the study was to analyze the biological parameters of the four populations and to find out the differences that allowed saigas inhabiting the Volga-Ural interfluve and Betpakdala to overcome the depression phase and begin to recover their numbers. At the end of the 20th century, the economic situation in the states where saigas were widespread at that time led to an increase in poaching among the population, which led to a sharp decrease in the total number of these ungulates to 50,000. The area of the main range decreased 50 times for the saiga population of the North-West Pre-Caspian, 2.4-5 times for the other three populations. The length and mass of seasonal migrations also decreased, and the saiga population of the North-West Pre-Caspian has become practically sedentary. In the period of low numbers, all populations have shown a decrease in the number of herds of different sizes found throughout the year, and in 56-100% of cases, herds of up to 50 animals were registered. In the early 2000s, the main biological parameters characterizing the four saiga populations were comparable, with the proportion of adult males and the yield of young animals per female in July-August being higher than in the other three populations (11.5±1.9 and 0.81±0.18 vs. 8.7±3.8 and 0.48±0.40, respectively). The growth of the Volga-Ural and Betpakdala populations became possible primarily due to the organization of effective protection and education of the local people with the support of the state government and international funds, which allowed reduce the press of poaching significantly.
Keywords: saiga, number, spatial distribution, migration, population structure, fecundity.
Prokopyeva Chr. O., Konyushkova M. V., Novikova N. M., Sobolev I. V. DIGITAL PHYTOINDICATION OF SOIL SALINITY IN THE DESERT STEPPES (REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA) // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 68-81 | PDF
On the territory of the Northern Sarpinsky lowland plain landscape area of the Caspian lowland in the zone of light chestnut soils soil-geobotanic studies were carried out to obtain new data which would allow to estimate the range of variation of soil salinity, which is characteristic for plant species and plant communities of the desert steppe of the Kalmykia Republic, and to calculate the digital models to indicate the degree of soil salinity according to geobotanical data. Along the 64meters-long transect with 1-m step, geobotanical sites, soil digs and wells up to 2 meters deep were laid. In soil samples, the salinity index was measured as pNa in an aqueous suspension (1:5). The results allowed us to determine the quantitative boundaries of soil salinity for 12 plant species and 7 plant communities for 3 depths (0-30, 0-50, 0-100 cm). In relation to soil salinity, three groups of plants were distinguished. The first group includes species confined to non-saline soils with a narrow range of salt content values. The second group has a wide range in terms of salinity and a preference to non-saline soils. The third group includes saline species (halophytes) confined to saline and highly saline soils. Of the 7 plant communities found, two (Stipa lessingiana + Festuca valesiaca + Artemisia lerchiana and Stipa lessingiana + Festuca valesiaca + Tanacetum achilleifolium) are distributed on non-saline soils up to a depth of 2 m; two others (Festuca valesiaca + Artemisia lerchiana + Tanacetum achilleifolium and Artemisia lerchiana + Tanacetum achilleifolium + Artemisia pauciflora) tend to non-saline soils within 0-50 cm, and three (Kochia prostrata + Artemisia pauciflora, Artemisia pauciflora and Poa bulbosa + Anabasis aphylla) are found only on saline soils from a depth of 25-50 cm. Based on data on the presence of plant species as predictors, the CART (decision tree) method predicted the degree of soil salinity with an accuracy of 80% for the 0-30 cm layer, 81% for the 0-50 cm layer, and 64% 0 for the 0-100 cm layer. Significant predictor plants (rank>60) were Kochia prostrata, Tanacetum achilleifolium, Artemisia austriaca, and Festuca valesiaca. Other species have low values of importance (reliability) as predictors.
Keywords: soil salinization, phytoindication, plant species and community, indicators of depth and degree of salinization, importance, reliability, CART and Random forest algorithms, machine learning, communication models, accuracy of indication.
Suleymanov R.R., Gizatshina G.M., Gabbasova I.M. ASSESSMENT OF THE SUITABILITY OF AGROCHERNOZEMS FOR USE IN IRRIGATION RECLAMATION IN THE SOUTHERN FOREST STEPPE ZONE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 82-89 | PDF
In the conditions of climate aridization, there is a need for irrigation reclamation in order to sustainably obtain high yields of agricultural products. There is a threat of land cover degradation due to the intensification of agricultural production. In this aspect, studying the properties of soils planned for use in irrigated farming is important to prevent the risk of degradation. Soil-reclamation survey of agrochernozems was carried out in the Pre-Urals Southern Forest Steppe Zone (Sterlitamak District, Republic of Bashkortostan). Studies have shown that the soil cover of the study area is represented by Haplic and Luvic chernozems. In terms of their water-physical, physical-chemical, agrochemical and environmental properties, they are close to each other and are highly resistant to degradation processes and are suitable for use in irrigation irrigation reclamation.
Keywords: agrochernozem, irrigation, water-physical, physicochemical, agrochemical, ecological properties.
Gorokhova I.N., Chursin I.N. RELATIONSHIP OF THE SPOTTED PATTERN OF IRRIGATED SOILS WITH THE CONTENT OF CARBONATES IN THE CASPIAN LOWLAND (VOLGOGRAD REGION) // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 2 (87). P. 90-97 | PDF
On example of Duboovrazhny irrigated area in Volgograd region the distribution and content of carbonates (CaCO3) in the upper horizons of the irrigated soils of the Caspian lowland (The Sarpa hollow region). 85-90s of the last century were the peak of irrigation in Duboovrazny area. Fodder crops were cultivated here, irrigation was carried out by sprinkling, the groundwater level remained satisfactory, and there were no secondary soil salinization centers. The area currently consists of private farm. Melon and vegetable crops are grown here using drip irrigation, in 2015-2016 winter crops cultivated with water-charging irrigation. The groundwater level remains satisfactory, secondary salinization occurs in some soil horizons. It was revealed, that part of irrigated fields has a spotted pattern, which stands out on satellite images and in field conditions under winter crops. It was found that the cause of the spotted image is not related to soil salinity, but is caused by the different content of carbonates in the surface soil layer. The idea of the work is to use remote sensing data and ground field survey, crossing areas with different spotting and spectral brightness in the images. This made it possible to identify soils with different carbonate contents in the arable soil horizon, which is extremely important for their irrigation and restoration.
Keywords: Field spotted pattern, satellite images, soils carbonate content.