Kulik K.N., Petrov V.I., Yuferev V.G., Tkachenko N.A., Shinkarenko S.S. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH-WESTERN PRECASPIAN REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 16-24. | PDF
An analysis of the desertification of the North-Western Precaspian region using geo-information technologies and aerospace data to identify changes in the area of hotspots of desertification showed that the area of degraded and deserted lands increases with the growth in the quantity of sheep and goats. With a relatively stable number of animals, the role of climatic factors increases, which leads to an increase in the speed and amplitude of changes in the area of hotspots of desertification, both in the direction of decrease, with sufficient moisture, and an increase in dry years. Landscape fires have a significant impact, which lead not only to a decrease in the projective cover, but also to the depletion of the species composition of vegetation. The study and mapping of the relief made it possible to establish spatially determined geomorphological features of the territory as a factor affecting local moisture, and, accordingly, on the stability of ecosystems and the possibility of phytomelioration.
Dedova E.B., Gol’dvarg B.А., Tsagan-Mandzhiev N.L. LAND DEGRADATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA: PROBLEMS AND WAYS TO RECOVER // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 63-71. | PDF
The Republic of Kalmykia is located in the European part of the arid zone of the Russian Federation, where one of the serious environmental and socio-economic problem is the desertification of a significant part (up to 80 %) of its territory. So, from 6264 thousand hectares of agricultural lands 77.9 % is subjected to various types of degradation, from them waterlogged-93.96 thousand hectares, eroded-526.18 thousand hectares, deflated-1753.92 thousand hectares, salinized-2505.6 thousand hectares. The highest indices of deflationary degradation are observed in the South-Eastern regions of Kalmykia (IDD 31.7-71.1 points), which is due to natural (increased aridity of the climate) and anthropogenic (excessive pasture load) factors. The conceptual model reflecting the mechanism of meliorative influence on the degradation processes proceeding on the lands of agricultural use under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is developed. An agrobiological method of phytomelioration of degraded lands on open sand massifs is proposed, including planting of leafless juzgun (Calligonum aphyllum (Pall.) Gurke.), giant hair (Leymus racemosus Lam. Tzvel.), prostrate rod (Bassia prostrata (L.) A. J. Scott), grey teresken (Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst.) and Siberian Wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum (Willd.) P. Beav.). The complexes of reclamation measures are developed. They are differentiated for different categories of agricultural lands, providing the creation of optimal conditions for increasing the natural resource potential of arid ecosystems and aimed at preventing desertification, leveling the complexity of the soil cover, reducing natural and anthropogenic salinity, salinity and the risk of other negative processes.