Vorobyeva I.B. CHANGE OF STOCKS OF MOBILE SUBSTANCE AND THERMAL REGIME OF NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGED SOILS OF THE NAZAROVSKY FOREST-STEPPE // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 2 (91). P. 40-50. | PDF
The article presents the results of studies on changes in the content and stocks of water-soluble forms of calcium, magnesium, organic and mineral carbon and moisture in natural and anthropogenically modified soils, as well as changes in the temperature of natural soils in different locations. The relevance of the study is due to the need to analyze the changes in the studied parameters under the conditions of short-term climate changes in the insular forest-steppe of the Nazarovsky depression. Generally accepted methods were used in the research: landscape-geochemical, comparative-analytical, comparative-geographical and statistical methods. It has been established that the moisture stocks in the meadow- swamp soil are maximum, in the meadow-leached chernozem soil they are minimal, and in the ordinary meadow chernozem and its anthropogenic modification – fallow – the values are close, which is connected with their position in the relief and the hydrothermal regime. It was revealed experimentally («in situ») that the temperature curve is steeper in ordinary meadow chernozem, freezing temperatures are lower, and the period with negative temperatures is longer than in meadow-swamp soil. New knowledge was obtained on changes in the reserves of water-soluble forms of calcium, magnesium, organic and mineral carbon, moisture content and fluctuations in climatic parameters (air temperature and precipitation amounts). Intra-annual changes in the temperature of natural soils («in situ») of the insular forest-steppe have been established for a more complete understanding of the dynamics of natural processes, as well as the use of the results obtained in further research on the study of the insular forest-steppe in a changing climate.
Keywords: natural, anthropogenic, soils, temperature, moisture, stocks, organic and mineral carbon.
Financing. The work was carried out within the State task of the IG SB RAS: (No. FM-2021-0002), the state registration number of the topic: AAAAA-A21-121012190055-7 «Spatial and temporal patterns of the material state of the landscapes of Siberia in changing environmental conditions».
Rudneva I.I., Shaida V.G., Scherba А.V., Zav’aylov A.V. CLIMATE EFFECTS ON THE ANNUAL AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF ECOLOGICAL STATE OF THE SALT LAKE ADJY-BAICHY (CRIMEA) // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 4 (88). P. 133-142. | PDF
Ecological state of the indoor water bodies, including hypersaline lakes are determined by the influence of the complex of the natural and anthropogenic factors. The aim of the present work was the annual and seasonal study of the monitoring of the hyprsaline lake Adjy-Baichy, which is located on the western part of Crimean Peninsula at the arid area. The fluctuations of the air and water temperature, hydrochemical parameters of the brine and Artemia salina population at the period of 2017-2020 were investigated. The common tendencies, characterized the air and water temperature increase in summer period, the highest values were found in July-September (<+30⁰ С), which was accompanied with the elevation of salinity and decrease of oxygen concentration.
Variations of pH and Eh were lower. The greatest salinity of the brine (< 350 ‰) was observed in 2017, the lowest value of oxygen concentration (0.7-1.0 мг/л,) was identified in 2020 and Eh (-78.5 мВ) were shown in 2019. Artemia cysts were found in all tested periods due the year, nauplii were found in March-April at water temperature +3+7⁰ С, the adults were caught in summer months and at the beginning of the autumn. In summer time at the high water temperature and low oxygen concentration the dead adults were found. The obtained results reflet the peculiarities of the effect of climate factors on the ecosystem of the hypersaline lake and they may be use as a model for the prediction of possible scenario of consequences of climate changes on the indoor water bodies and be useful for the understanding of the processes of transformation of aquatic ecosystems in arid areas and for the development of the programs for their protection and optimal management of their resources.
Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the state task of the FGBUN IMBI «Functional, metabolic and toxicological aspects of the existence of hydrobionts and their populations in biotopes with different physico-chemical regime», state number. Registration AAAAA-A18-118021490093-4.
Zelikhina S.V., Shartova N.V., Mironova V.A., Varentsov M.I. THE CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EXPANSION RANGE OF WEST NILE FEVER IN RUSSIA: SPATIAL-TEMPORAL TRENDS EVALUATION // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 16-23.
This work aims to estimate the spatial-temporal trends of climatic conditions changes for the spread of West Nile fever (WNF) in the south of the European part of Russia. We used observations data with 58 weather stations (1997-2018) and data the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1981-2018). We assessed the suitability of climatic conditions for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission using the degree-day method. Based on the data obtained, we demonstrate the growth of the sums of effective temperatures (ET). The increase in the duration of the season of effective infectivity of mosquitoes was not tracked down. The changes in the sums ET coincide with the increase in the average air temperature for the epidemiological season. This creates favorable conditions for the development of the virus in the mosquito, as with an increase in ET the circulation of the virus is more efficient. The most favorable situation for the transmission of WNV is in the Caspian and Ciscaucasia region. In this territory, there is a further improvement in the conditions for the circulation of WNF due to an increase in the sums of ET. Compared to the Urals region, conditions suitable for the transmission of WNV are developing much faster in the central part of the European territory of Russia. It may lead to the further spread of WNV in this region.
Keywords: West Nile fever, West Nile virus, climate, temperature, climate changes, degree-day method, climatic trends.
Funding. This work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 17-77-20070 “Assessing and Forecasting the Bioclimatic Comfort of Russian Cities under the Climate Change in the XXI Century”, and as part of the development program of the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Educational School of Moscow State University “The planet future and the global environmental changes”.