Alichaev M.M., Sultanova M.G. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE SOIL PROCESSES OF THE HIGHLANDS OF DAGESTAN // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V.27. № 3 (88). P. 61-65.
The article presents the materials of route, stationary soil, soil-ecological studies conducted in the high-mountain zone of Dagestan with the characteristic: a) the current features of the development of the soil cover; b) the ecological parameters of the soil cover and their changes under the influence of climate warming.
The variety of natural and economic conditions of the object of study caused a significant diversity of the soil cover. The distribution of the soil was greatly influenced by the height of the terrain, the exposure and the steepness of the slopes. Based on the soil erosion studies conducted in previous periods, it can be noted that improper land use and climate warming have led to radical changes in the composition of the soil cover in terms of determining indicators – soil erosion.
In recent years, the area of eroded land has doubled, the area with heavily eroded soils-by 1/3. This led to a decrease in the thickness of humus horizons in almost all soils to an average of 20 cm, and the loss of humus reserves in the soils amounted to 60% of the initial content. The presented analysis of the degradation of the soil cover and the established patterns of soil evolution on the slope lands of the highlands serve as a theoretical basis for the reproduction of soil fertility, the preservation of the ecological role of soil protection from erosion and other degradation processes.
Funding. This work was carried out within the state assignment No. 0733-2019-0005 “To Develop an Assessment System for Modern Trends of Soil Processes Development in Natural Landscapes of the Mountainous Province of the Republic of Dagestan”.
Shmatko V.Yu., Sushko K.S., Sokolova T.A., Ilyina L.P. SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES OF SOIL NEMATODES IN CHESTNUT SOILS OF THE MANYCH VALLEY UNDER PASTURE LOAD // Arid ecosystems. 2021. V. 27. № 1 (86). P. 106-118. | PDF
In this article, two key areas with virgin and pasture biotopes were studied, for which soil parameters were determined, a brief description of the vegetation was given, and the spectral reflectance properties of the vegetation cover (NDVI) were calculated using Landsat 8 OLI images.
The seasonal dynamics of the structure of soil nematode communities in chestnut solonetzic soils under pasture load has been studied. A number of features have been identified that are manifested in the species diversity of the fauna, changes in the total number, domination of certain trophic groups and genera.
For the studied areas, 133 taxa were identified, exact species identification is given for 58 species. It has been established that the features of soil nematode communities in different seasons of the year are manifested in the dominance of certain trophic groups and genera, as well as their total number at key sites.
In general, the fauna of nematodes can be assessed as quite diverse – Shannon’s index (Hˊ) throughout the year at all sites varied within the same values. The nematode community maturity index by Bongers (MI) indicates the stability of their habitat conditions.
Keywords: soil nematodes, chestnut solonetzic soils, pasture load, vegetation, ecological and trophic composition, diversity index, community maturity index.
Garmaev E.Zh., Ayurzhanaev A.A., Tsydypov B.Z., Alymbaeva Zh.B., Sodnomov B.V., Andreev S.G., Zharnikova M.A., Batomunkuev V.S., Mandakh N., Salikhov T.K., Tulohonov А.К. ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL – TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF ARID ECOSYSTEMS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 2 (83). P. 34-42. | PDF
Climate change and human activity on the territory of the Republic of Buryatia intensify the processes of desertification and land degradation. Zoning of the territory of Buryatia was carried out according to the aridity index using ENVIREM high spatial resolution climatic data. Based on the correlation analysis of the time series of the NDVI AVHRR vegetation index, meteorological series of the NCEP / NCAR reanalysis and field studies, a quantitative assessment of the long-term changes in vegetation cover in arid and humid zones was carried out. Maps of the spatial distribution of linear trends of NDVI and precipitation for 1982-2015 with the separation of wet (1982-1999) and dry periods (2000-2015) were obtained. During the wet period, positive NDVI trends are observed for almost the entire territory of the Republic, while the dry period is characterized by a significant increase in the negative trends of the vegetation index. The positive correlation between the Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient and NDVI is observed for intermountain steppificated hollows, negative for forest landscapes. The dynamics of NDVI of steppe vegetation largely depends on precipitation, the dynamics of NDVI of forests — on temperature. Reforestation, post-pyrogenic succession, shrubbing of abandoned fields, etc., cause the increase of NDVI. Negative NDVI trends are typical for steppe ecosystems under conditions of decreasing precipitation, and for forest vegetation prone to cuttings and fires.