Ogureeva G.N., Bocharnikov M.V. ECOSYSTEM AND BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH-EAST ALTAI–TUVA DESERT-STEPPE OROBIOME // Arid Ecosystems. 2022. Vol. 28. № 4 (93). P. 75-82. | PDF
Based on the biome concept of ecosystem diversity and the ecological-geographical approach to the analysis of biodiversity, a regional assessment of the unique South-East Altai-Tuva orobiome for Russia is given. Orobiome is considered as a strong unit for inventory and analysis of ecosystem and biotic diversity of mountain territories. The characteristic of bioclimatic indicators characterizing the originality of the desert-steppe orobiome of the Subarid class of belt types and its high-altitude belts is given. The altitudinal-belt structure of the vegetation cover is revealed, according to which the spatial differentiation of flora, plant communities, and ecosystems are formed. A quantitative assessment of the floristic (about 1400 species of vascular plants) and phytocenotic diversity by belts (nival, wasteland-tundra, forest-steppe, steppebelts) is iven. The features of the spatial structure of the diversity of communities in the conditions of the mountainous territory are revealed.
Funding. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task on the topic «Spatio-temporal organization of ecosystems in the conditions of environmental changes» of Moscow State University and on the basis of the MWG Herbarium (created with the support of the Moscow University Development Program).
Khydyrov P.R. BIODIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIBATID MITES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF THE KOPETDAG // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 3 (92). P. 101-106. | PDF
The results of studies on the biodiversity and ecology of mites inhabiting the South-West of the Kopetdag are presented. In particular, 41 species of oribatid mites have been identified in the soil, litter under trees and shrubs, as well as in anthills and holes of rodents, including 3 new species for the fauna of Turkmenistan.
The significance of these mites in the decomposition of plant residues and in soil-forming processes is shown. In the mountains the oribatid mites are capable of life from the second half of March to the end of November. It was found that from mid-May to October, the number of mites in the deserts and steppes reaches its peak of individuals 25-30 ekz./. The lowest indices of the number of oribatid mites were recorded in June specimens 2-7 ekz./ this is explained by the lack of moisture and food resources in the soil. The observations revealed the optimal value of moisture content 5-25% and soil temperature +3 — +25 0C for the development of mites.
Our research has revealed, for the first time, the breeding centers of mites in anthills. Two ecological groups of myrmecophilic mites have been identified: detritus-phages and zoonecrophages. Myrmecophilic detritus phages were assigned to 14 species of mites that were found in the nests of ants feeding on the seeds of herbaceous plants. The group of myrmecophilic zoonecrophages includes 6 species of mites. They are found in the nests of ants that feed on the corpses of insects.
We examined also the data on the finding of oribatid mites in the holes of rodents. The identification of nidicolous species of oribatid mites is considered as a result of their adaptation to arid habitat conditions.
Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the State assignment of the Department of Biology of the S. Seidi Turkmen State Pedagogical Institute «Biodiversity of soil mites of various systematic groups (Acari: Sarcoptiformes, Trombidiformes) and their ecology» (No. 10.00.2313).
Ogureeva G.N., Bocharnikov M.V., Suslova E.G. STRUCTURE OF THE CRIMEAN-NOVOROSSIYSK OROBIOME (THE UTRISH-TUAPSE VARIANT) BOTANICAL DIVERSITY // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 4 (85). P. 10-17. | PDF
Based on the concept of ecosystem diversity, a regional assessment of the Crimean-Novorossiysk orobiome is given. Orobiome is considered to be a strong unit for inventory and analysis of mountain biodiversity. On the example of the Utrish-Tuapse geographical variant of the orobiome (the Northwest Caucasus), the altitudinal-belt structure of the vegetation cover is revealed, according to which the spatial differentiation of flora and plant communities are formed. A quantitative evaluation of biota and abiotic indicators characterizing the botanical and geographical traits of the orobiome is given. The spectrum of altitudinal zonality of vegetation is determined, a quantitative assessment of floristic diversity by the belt is given, and some features of the spatial structure of community diversity in mountainous areas are revealed.
Keywords: biodiversity, altitudinal zonation, orobiome, mapping, the Abrau Peninsula, Sub-Mediterranean.
Konyushkova M.V., Nukhimovskaya Yu.D., Gasanova Z.U., Stepanova N.Yu. VARIABILITY OF SOIL SALINITY AND PHYTODIVERSITY OF HETEROCHRONOUS REGIONS OF THE CASPIAN LITTORAL PLAIN // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 4 (85). P. 66-75. | PDF
The article discusses the results of soil and geobotanical studies at the plots on the coastal plain of the Caspian Sea (Northern Dagestan) of different ages: 1340 ± 36 years calBP (Kaspii-1) and 293 ± 13 years calBP (Kaspii-2). Changes in the biodiversity of the vegetation cover and the soil-salinity variation over time are assessed. It is shown that the variability of soil salinity (range, quartile scale, and standard deviation) at the local level (areas of nonuniformity with linear dimensions of meters or tens of meters) has increased, while the parameters of vegetation biodiversity (floristic richness, the species number, the families number, the number of long-vegetating herbaceous perennials and ephemers, the presence of species with different salinity tolerance, and differentiation of the intracoenotic diversity) have decreased. The plot with a Tamarisk community (Kaspii-2) is characterized by a statistically significant, moderate correlation (R2 = 0.29) between soil salinity and vegetation based on data on the distribution of dominant species, whereas this correlation is not significant on the older plot with a saltwort—suaeda community (Kaspii-1). The data show that, when the area dries up after sea regression, the variation in soil properties (salinity) and vegetation changes in different directions: the variation in soil salinity (functional pedodiversity) increases with age, while the variation in vegetation (phytodiversity) decreases. Moisture availability is obviously the main factor limiting the biodiversity on the older plot on the background of high salinization of soils on the both plots as evidenced with the smaller moisture reserve in the top 1-m soil layer on the older plot.