Rudneva I.I., Shaida V.G., Scherba А.V. PECULIARITIES OF THE ANNUAL AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF THE SALINE LAKES LOCATED IN ARID CLIMATE IN CRIMEA // Arid ecosystems. 2022. V.28. № 3 (92). P. 117-125. | PDF
On Crimea peninsula there are several unique lakes of different genesis, which characterize high quality recreational and balneological properties. These water bodies are impacted for anthropogenic activities, caused negative consequences for the total ecosystem, including the lost of biological and hydromineralogical resources. At several cases, the water bodies located not far from each other greatly differ because of anthropogenic activity. For instance, Moinaky Lake is located at the west part of the Eupatoria city (Crimea), at present it is divided by the sand barrier in two parts namely Moinaky 1 (big part) and Moinaky 2 (small part). The aim of the present work was to study several physical and chemical characteristics of the water ( temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, oxygen content) in both basins and the population state of brine shrimp Artemia salina at the period of 2018-2020. We studied the hydrochemical parameters of the water namely temperature, рН, oxygen concentration, salinity and Eh) monthly in both water bodies, divided by sand barrier. Seasonal dynamics of the tested parameters was characterized by the increase of salinity and Eh in summer period, accompanied with the increasing temperature of the air and water caused high insolation. Simultaneously, the concentration of the oxygen dropped and the insignificant decrease of pH was observed. The differences between the tested processes in both water bodies were shown, which were more clearly in Moinaky 2 as compared with Moinaky 1. Artemia cysts were found in both basins, while nauplia and adults were found only in Moinaky 2 at autumn and winter 2020, after dry period and restoration of the hydrological regime.
Financing. The work was carried out on the topic of the state assignment of the Moscow Hydrophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 0555-2021-0004 «Fundamental research of oceanological processes that determine the state and evolution of the marine environment under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, based on observation and modeling methods» (cipher «Oceanological processes»).
Konyushkova M.V., Nukhimovskaya Yu.D., Gasanova Z.U., Stepanova N.Yu. VARIABILITY OF SOIL SALINITY AND PHYTODIVERSITY OF HETEROCHRONOUS REGIONS OF THE CASPIAN LITTORAL PLAIN // Arid ecosystems. 2020. V. 26. № 4 (85). P. 66-75. | PDF
The article discusses the results of soil and geobotanical studies at the plots on the coastal plain of the Caspian Sea (Northern Dagestan) of different ages: 1340 ± 36 years calBP (Kaspii-1) and 293 ± 13 years calBP (Kaspii-2). Changes in the biodiversity of the vegetation cover and the soil-salinity variation over time are assessed. It is shown that the variability of soil salinity (range, quartile scale, and standard deviation) at the local level (areas of nonuniformity with linear dimensions of meters or tens of meters) has increased, while the parameters of vegetation biodiversity (floristic richness, the species number, the families number, the number of long-vegetating herbaceous perennials and ephemers, the presence of species with different salinity tolerance, and differentiation of the intracoenotic diversity) have decreased. The plot with a Tamarisk community (Kaspii-2) is characterized by a statistically significant, moderate correlation (R2 = 0.29) between soil salinity and vegetation based on data on the distribution of dominant species, whereas this correlation is not significant on the older plot with a saltwort—suaeda community (Kaspii-1). The data show that, when the area dries up after sea regression, the variation in soil properties (salinity) and vegetation changes in different directions: the variation in soil salinity (functional pedodiversity) increases with age, while the variation in vegetation (phytodiversity) decreases. Moisture availability is obviously the main factor limiting the biodiversity on the older plot on the background of high salinization of soils on the both plots as evidenced with the smaller moisture reserve in the top 1-m soil layer on the older plot.
Vlasenko M.V., Kulik A.K., Salugin A.N. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION AND PRODUCTIVITY LOSSES OF ARID PASTURES ECOSYSTEMS OF SARPINSKY LOWLAND // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 4 (81). P. 71-81. | PDF
We monitored the pastures ecosystems of the semi-arid zone in Sarpinsky Lowland of Russia and registered some local problems. The experimental data was collected through 1999-2017. It is stated that the present agro-landscape conditions are critical. The degraded pastures account for more than 600 thousands ha (34%), more than the half of which are highly degraded. 35-40%, of the total area of the regional forage grounds (about 1870 thousands ha) are moderately overgrazed, 30-40% are highly overgrazed, and 15-20% are excluded from the agricultural management and have turned into broken sands and abandoned territories. The digression is severely high on the winter (year-round) pastures. The area of open and drift sands has increased to 20-30%. In some districts the pressure on the pastures exceeds the optimal index 5-7 times. Almost all pastures need resting periods and agricultural restoration. Desertification (salinity, erosion and deflation) is a severe problem of the region. As the result of it the productivity loss of the pastures is 1052.7 thousands hwt of feed-units per year. Agroforestry measures have a significant value for preventing of soil erosion and deflation and are considered to be the many-functional, long-term protection factor. A map of forest conditions was composed to achieve the maximal ecological- and economical result of agroforestation; it was based on the agroforestry classification which represents the natural characteristics of the territory and features of its agroforestry developing