SEMI-DESERT IS THE PARADOX OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Safronova I.N. SEMI-DESERT IS THE PARADOX OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 3-9. | PDF
The steppe zone occupies a large area in the South of the European Russia. Part of the Caspian Lowland belongs to the desert zone. Some researchers along with the steppe and desert zones distinguish another zone, called semi-desert. The paradox is that there is no semi-desert type of vegetation and there are no typical elements for the semi-desert, but the semi-desert is considered as a separate zone.
Keywords: zone, subzone, vegetation type, semi-desert, deserted steppes.
ECOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND UTILIZATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGES IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA
Boldanov T.A., Mukhin G.D. ECOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND UTILIZATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGES IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 10-19. | PDF
Based on the analysis of climatic data from meteorological stations of Republic Buryatia from 1970 to 2015 temperature’s trends and precipitation’s changes were determined in different regions of the Republic. The global warming, reduction of the precipitation, the annual increase in the amplitude of climatic data, climate aridization and, probably, the growth of continental climate were determined as a fact. The spontaneous adaptation of the area and structure of crops, the number and structure of grazing cattle to changing conditions were also stated.
The general directions of systematic adaptation of agricultural nature management were formulated in connection with climate aridization: optimization use of cultivated land, irrigation opportunities, development of traditional cattle breeding based on small forms of farming with the most adaptive number of grazing livestock
Keywords: global climate change, regional climate trends, the dynamics of average annual temperatures and precipitation, environmental risks, climate adaptation.
PHENOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF BLACK ALDER (ALNUS GLUTINOSA GAERTN.) IN ECOTOPES OF THE EUROPEAN RUSSIA CENTRAL PART STEPPE ZONE
Turchina T.A. PHENOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF BLACK ALDER (ALNUS GLUTINOSA GAERTN.) IN ECOTOPES OF THE EUROPEAN RUSSIA CENTRAL PART STEPPE ZONE // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 20-31. | PDF
The duration of the basic phenological stages of black alder development is defined as a result of the long-term researches, which took 21-30 years in the floodplain ecotype, and 12 years in the sandy terraces ecotype. The influence of edaphic factor is shown in expiry dates and duration of separate phenostages. The growth buds form 8 days earlier in the ecotype of sandy terrace, the foliage falls down 2 weeks earlier, and the shoots development period is 7 days longer. The statistically significant distinctions between ecotypes (tf=2.12-7.16>t95=2.01-2.03) were revealed in the duration of flowering process and foliage development. In each ecotype the strongest dependence of phenological stage duration was revealed at the joint influence of warm and water availability of the corresponding period (rx(yz)=0.55-0.99). The identical phenological spectrum in the ecotypes was registered during the years when the average perennial hydrothermic coefficient was exceeded 1.5-2.0 times.
Keywords: steppe zone, black alder, floodplain ecotype, sandy terraces ecotype, seasonal development, phenological stages, ecological distinctions of phenological stage.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF SALT TRANSFER ON THE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
Belousova A.P. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF SALT TRANSFER ON THE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 32-42. | PDF
We studied the experimental hydro-chemical researches performed in the field on the water balance plots and in the laboratory as well. We determined the principles according to which the plots and laboratory gear should be selected, the main pollutants and chemical composition of indicator solutions and rinsing water for pillars and monoliths washing should be chosen.
We offer a pattern for experiments to be made in the field and laboratory.
We studied the method to determine the parameters of salt transition according to the math models of macro-dispersion (by the method of comparison curves, of moments and of semigraphical) and micro-dispersion and salt dissolution.
The method of experimental researches of salt transition was tested on the Northern Yershovsky Irrigation System in Saratov Region.
Keywords: mass transfer, salt transfer, pollutants, water balance plot, pillars and monoliths, macro-dispersion, micro-dispersion.
TO THE ISSUE OF RESTORATION OF FERTILITY OF DEFLATED DRY STEPPE SOILS(BY THE EXAMPLE OF MODEL LABORATORY TESTS)
Chimitdorzhieva G.D. TO THE ISSUE OF RESTORATION OF FERTILITY OF DEFLATED DRY STEPPE SOILS (BY THE EXAMPLE OF MODEL LABORATORY TESTS) // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 43-48. | PDF
Due to the wide distribution of deflated low-humus chestnut soils in the Trans-Baikal region, a search was made to find the ways for restoration of their lost fertility. Model experiments were carried out using green masses and roots of sidereal crops: alfalfa, sweet clover and rapeseed. The results of the survey showed that the added fresh organic masses increase the carbon content by 32-53% from the unfertile variant, out of the total amount in the soils from the use of green masses of alfalfa and sweet clover by 80%, from their roots by 27-55%, humus was noted to increase its humate level, and the mineral forms of nitrogen.
Keywords: deflated chestnut soils, laboratory model experiments, application of side rates: alfalfa, sweet clover, rapeseed.
SOIL-AGROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SVETLOYARSKY IRRIGATED SITE IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION
Gorokhova I.N., Avdeeva T.N., Pankova E.I., Prokopyeva K.O. SOIL-AGROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SVETLOYARSKY IRRIGATED SITE IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 49-60. | PDF
In this article we analyze the agrochemical properties of the humus-accumulative horizons of irrigated soils of the key area, which is located on the territory of the Svetloyarsky Irrigation System in the Volgograd region. It was revealed that as a result of field planning, before the commissioning of the irrigation system, and a long period of irrigation, carbonate material was redistributed and its concentration in the upper part of the soil profile reached 5-13%, which led to the formation of a dense crust on the surface of soils and areas of sparseness (death of plants) in crops of alfalfa. The areas of sparseness are well fixed on the remote sensing data. For more than 45 years of land use under irrigation conditions, there was a significant reduction in level of humus content relative to arable rain-fed lands. The humus content in the soils of the key site averaged 1.23% and approached (according to “The Methodical Guidelines for Complex Monitoring of Agricultural Land Fertility”, 2003) the minimum permissible level. Soil degradation is caused by the general low level of farming and the long-term use of the surface irrigation method on a part of the area. The content of mobile phosphorus (20-102 mg/kg) and exchangeable potassium (316-806 mg/kg) in soils varied widely from medium to very high.
Keywords: irrigated soils, agrochemical characteristics of soils, carbonates.
PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF PASTURES RESTORED THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN
Radochinskaya L.P., Kladiev A.K., Rybashlykova L.P. PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF PASTURES RESTORED THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 61-68. | PDF
In this article we tell about the analysis of the vegetation cover of the restored grassland in the North-West of the Caspian Sea region, carried out 30 years after phytomelioration. The distribution and productivity of pasture flora in the ecological and morphological areas of the former focus of desertification were analyzed. The analysis of the results of ecological-meliorative experiment, carried out in the 80’s of XX century, was made, with the usage of aviation during formation of mammoth wild ryestripes wall made for sand stabilization.
Keywords: Chyornye Zemli Nature Reserve, pasture, flora, pockets of deflation, revegetation, biodiversity, vegetation, productivity.
EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE RARE BIRD SPECIES IN THE REGIONAL ARID BIOMES OF RUSSIA AS THE BASIS FOR THEIR PROTECTION
Yemelyanova L.G. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE RARE BIRD SPECIES IN THE REGIONAL ARID BIOMES OF RUSSIA AS THE BASIS FOR THEIR PROTECTION // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 69-78. | PDF
The biodiversity of the rare, endangered and restoring bird species (of the Red List of Russian Federation and International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2018) was evaluated for the arid and semiarid regional biomes of Russia. It has shown that those biomes are inhabited with 104 protected species out of total 118 species, living in Russia. A group of rare species was determined, which is poorly provided or not provided at all with proper protection in the nature reserves in arid and semiarid regional biomes of Russia. The results of this work can be used for evaluation of the regional biodiversity of the rare and endangered bird species and development of proper measures to improve their protection.
Keywords: protected bird species, Red List of Russian Federation, Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature, regional biomes, nature reserves.
LONG-TERM DYNAMICS AND SEASONAL CHANGES OF HYDROCHEMISTRY OF ISSYK-KUL LAKE BASIN, KYRGYZSTAN
Asankulov T., Abduvaili Ts., Isanova G., Long M., Duulatov E. Long-term Dynamics and Seasonal Changes of Hydrochemistry of Issyk-Kul Lake Basin, Kyrgyzstan // Arid ecosystems. 2019. V. 25. № 1 (78). P. 79-87. | PDF
The Issyk-Kul Lake is one of the largest highland and brackish lakes in the world in continental origin. Assessment and analysis of the long-term dynamics on the chemical composition and salinity of water in the Issyk-Kul Lake basin was carried out according to the data for 1928, 1932, 1960, 1977, 1980, and 1986, 2000 and 2014. Sulfates, chlorides, sodium and magnesium are the predominant ions of the lake water. Na+ and Mg+ predominate from the cations, and from the anions are Cl— and SO42—. The sulfates predominate in the chemical composition of water, and the lake water belongs to the sulfate class and to the chloride-sulphate-sodium-magnesium type of mineralization. The content of the main ions such as sodium and potassium and other ions in the lake waters in comparison with 1932 and 1986 shows a slight increase. A slight change in the content of ions and water mineralization in general indicates the presence of good water exchange between its individual water sections and the propagation of vertical circulation of water masses to the very bottom. The salinity of the lake water from 1928 to 2014 increased from 5.823 to 6.22 g/l respectively. This might be explained by much less incoming part of the water balance and insignificant evaporation. The water in the lake has an alkaline reaction and the pH of the lake water was within 7.95-8.82 in 2015. The study of the hydrochemistry of natural waters is of great practical importance in various branches of the economy. Since the chemical composition of water is taken into account when using natural waters for all types of water supply and water use. The importance of hydrochemical research is also increasing due to pollution of water bodies and anthropogenic activities.
Keywords: Issyk-Kul Lake, hydrochemistry, ion, salinity, Kyrgyzstan.